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【GMG】第一章:开始(Chapter 1: Getting Started)
« 于: 2018-07-23, 周一 23:05:18 »
GM的职责 Duties of a GM

      当所有人聚在桌前一起进行游戏时,是GM创造了这个世界,在被他的故事吸引的观众面前注入了生命。GM是所有人中投入最多的那个,在每一场游戏前他日以继夜的精心编织着命运的丝线,描绘着冒险家们的曲折坚信生活和工作,构建遭遇和怪物,将鲜血汗水和眼泪注入她的创作之中。以一个常见的比喻来说,角色扮演游戏就像是场电影,演员们可以根据GM的提示即兴修改剧本。拓展这个比较,如果玩家们是演员,那么GM就是导演了——通常也是编剧,即使故事是基于已经发售的冒险。虽然这是一个通用的比较,但是它部分说明了GM所扮演的多重角色。(GM)这个位置可以被拆分成以下几个职责和责任。

说书人(Storyteller):编织涉及玩家角色和任意数量非玩家角色,引领对话,并展开各色各类的想法、故事和冒险。对于GM,首先也是最重要的就是就是当好说书人。虽然游戏是由在座所有人共同描述创作的故事,但是GM是铺就并维护冒险者们行走道路的那个人。

演艺人(Entertainer):就算计划周密详尽,情节错综复杂,但是如果游戏不够有趣,无法吸引人,那么就不值得付出努力。GM的工作就是用任何必要的手段来保持玩家的能量和兴趣,包括通过古怪的声音、生动的手势以及通常在最经典意义上的愚弄自己,来完成让团队沉浸于故事之中。为了满足每个人的玩家角色遇到的角色,游戏高手必须集滑稽演员,喜剧演员和悲剧演员于一身。作为演艺人,GM是每个玩家体验的管理者,让每个人都参与其中,故事按照合适的节奏发展。

主持人(Moderator):虽然主持人在任何游戏中都很重要,但是在新玩家还不熟悉游戏规则的情况下,以及在游戏商店或大会上为陌生的玩家主持“组织化游戏(organized play)”时,主持人的角色尤为重要。许多玩家喜欢游戏的战术方面,并且会充分利用战斗内外的各种规则。GM应当知道每个角色的能力,以及非玩家角色和怪物的能力,并准备队任何互相矛盾或者有争议的规则解释做出判断。虽然对于GM来说,公平并听取玩家的意见和论点很重要,但是一个优秀的GM应该有信心并决心在他做出决定后保持坚定。

创造者(Creator):Gm不仅仅是吧故事搬上桌面,而且很多时候还是整个世界的创造者。通常情况下,他花费在准备一场活动上的时间比这场活动实际需要的时间还要多。当不使用已经出版的设定或冒险时,GM必须在游戏之外花费时间来创建情节、构建敌人、构建遭遇、开发魔法物品和法术、设计怪物,以及开发玩家即将居住的冒险世界。

导师(Instructor):并不是每个人都对规则有相同甚至足够的理解。这些玩家中有些人还很年轻,新一代的玩家渴望加入游戏行列,而另一些人则是你安利的朋友,希望他们能从中感受到角色扮演游戏的乐趣;甚至有一些是会展或游戏商店的新员工。每个人在面对角色扮演游戏的复杂规则时,天赋是不同的,很多人甚至会被它们吓到。GM的职责之一就是指导玩家学习游戏——毕竟,如今的大部分GM都是从另一个对他们保有耐心的GM那里学习的。

玩家(Player):尽管有这么个无处不在之人,角色扮演游戏并不是要让游戏主人和玩家对抗。它们不是竞赛,当玩家成功时,GM不会输——相反,如果玩家离开游戏桌时感觉自己受到了考验,但却获得了胜利,那么GM就获得了最好的结果。虽然有一个人引导着游戏,但在某种意义上,每个人都是玩家。GM必须像玩家自己的角色一样,让他们控制的非玩家角色能使人信服,甚至比玩家的更好。

      除了这些角色之外,GM还可以填充其他一些角色。许多团体为他们的游戏维持一套房规,并且GM对特定的规则解释和仲裁有最终的决定权(尽管团体中的每个人都应该事先知道任何房规)。GM通常也是游戏场地的主人。至少,提供了一个足以进行游戏的优秀场地。虽然一些杰出的GM可能会提供所有的资料,包括书籍、角色表、铅笔、骰子、迷你模型和战斗手册,但团队应该解决自己这些细节问题。作为游戏的主持者,重要的是要提供一个足够大的场地来玩,一个每个人都可以坐的地方,合理的设施,以及让游戏顺利进行的渴望。无论是在维多利亚时代的餐桌上,还是在斯巴达式公寓的地板上,在课间休息时在图书馆里,或是在一辆面包车的后面,在去一次家庭露营之旅的路上,角色扮演游戏可以适合任何情况,只要你有兴趣和想玩的欲望。‘

GM术语表 A Game Master’s Glossary
下面列出了一些新的GM应该熟悉的术语,这些术语在核心规则手册中都有提到,除了在核心书11页的“常用术语”中提到的术语外,他们是GM词汇表中最重要的词汇之一。

冒险(Adventure):冒险是PC体验的一组完全独立的故事情节。 冒险是由一系列进一步讲述故事情节的遭遇组成的。

战役(Campaign):故事的集合,有超量庞大的叙述交织而成。它可能是一系列已出版的冒险故事,一系列自制的材料,或者是设计成系列的冒险之路。战役可能有也可能没有明确或预定义的终点。

战役弧(Campaign Arc):一系列的冒险活动,通常是大型战役的一部分。GM们经常用这些短的弧线来创造一个故事,比完整的战役要简洁,但比一次冒险要长。

遭遇(Encounter):遭遇是指PC正在积极地做某事的短暂场景。遭遇的例子包括与怪物的战斗,对冒险情节有重要意义的社交互动,试图解除陷阱,或者发现需要进一步调查的谜团或线索。

超游(Metagaming):这是指当角色基于——他们并不知道但是其玩家从现实世界知道——的信息进行操作的行为。当玩家未能在角色知识和非角色知识之间相互保持独立时,超有就会进入游戏。这可能包括从一个已经读过冒险故事的玩家的准确的角色预测,玩家在他们的角色不知道的时候识别怪物,或者低智力角色运用受过良好教育的玩家的知识和才能等等。

聚会(一次游戏,Session):聚会是指单独的一次游戏。不是每次聚会都会带来一次冒险。很多冒险需要很多次游戏才能完成。聚会的时间因人而异,从几个小时到一整个周末。

劇透 -   :
Duties of a GM
While everyone at the table plays the game, the Game Master creates the world, breathing life into it in front of a small audience enraptured by his story. The Game Master works the hardest of everyone, spending night upon night before each game session carefully weaving the strands of fate and plotting the course of the adventurers’ lives, working in twists, building encounters and monsters, and pouring blood, sweat, and tears into his creation. To use a common analogy, roleplaying games are like movies where the actors get to improvise and alter the script as they go, working off prompts from the Game Master. Extending this comparison, if the players are the actors, then the Game Master is the director—and often the screenwriter, even when basing the story on a published adventure. While this is a generic comparison, it illustrates some of the multiple roles the Game Master fills. The position can also be broken down into a number of other duties and responsibilities as follows.

Storyteller: Weaving plots involving the player characters and any number of nonplayer characters, leading dialogue, and unfurling a vast tapestry of ideas, stories, and adventure, the Game Master is a storyteller first and foremost. While the game is a collaborative narrative told from all sides of the table, the Game Master paves and maintains the road along which the adventurers walk.
Entertainer: Despite the best-laid plans and most intricate plots, if the game isn’t fun and engaging, it isn’t worth the effort. It’s the Game Master’s job to do whatever’s necessary to keep the players’ energy and interest up, immersing the group in the story through the use of strange voices, animated gestures, and generally making a fool of himself in the most classic sense. In order to fulfill the role of every individual the player characters encounter, the Game Master needs to be impressionist, comedian, and thespian all in one. In the role of the entertainer, the Game Master is the steward of every player’s experience, keeping everyone at the table involved and the story moving along at the proper pace.
Moderator: While important in any game, the role of moderator becomes even more important in games with new players unfamiliar with the rules, or situations where the Game Master might be running a game for strangers, such as “organized play” sessions at gaming stores and conventions. Many players enjoy the tactical aspects of the game and make the most of the rules in and outside of combat. The Game Master should know what each character is capable of, as well as the abilities of the nonplayer characters and monsters, and should be prepared to pass judgment on any contradictory or disputed interpretations of the rules. And while it’s important for the Game Master to be fair and hear out players’ opinions and arguments, a good Game Master has the confidence and resolve to hold firm once he’s made a decision. 
Creator: Not only does the Game Master bring stories to the table, but many times he is also the creator of entire worlds. More often than not, he spends more time preparing for the session than the session actually takes to play. When not using a published setting or adventure, the Game Master must take the time outside of the game to create the plot, build enemies, construct encounters, develop magic items and spells, design monsters, and f lesh out the world of adventure the players will soon inhabit.
Instructor: Not everyone is going to show up to the table with an equal—or even sufficient—understanding of the rules. Some of these players will be young, the new generation of gamers eager to enter into the ranks, and others will be friends you’ve encouraged to learn the joys of roleplaying games; some may even be fresh recruits at conventions or game stores. Everyone has a different aptitude for the admittedly complex rules of roleplaying games, and many people are intimidated by them. Part of a Game Master’s role is to guide players in learning the game—after all, the majority of Game Masters playing today learned from another Game Master who was patient with them.
Player: Despite a pervasive myth, roleplaying games are not about pitting the Game Master against the players. They are not competitions, and the Game Master does not lose when the players succeed—rather, if the players leave the table feeling tested but triumphant, then the Game Master has achieved the best possible result. Though one person guides the game, everyone is a player in some sense. Game Masters must be as convincing with the nonplayer characters they control as the players are with their own characters, if not more so.
    In addition to these roles, the Game Master might also fill a handful of others. Many groups maintain a set of house rules for their games, and the Game Master has the final say on particular interpretations and arbitrations of rules (though everyone in the group should be aware of any house rules beforehand). The Game Master may also act as host for the game. At the least, the host provides an ample place to play. While some extraordinary Game Masters might provide all materials, including books, character sheets, pencils, dice, miniatures, and a battlemat, groups should decide upon those details themselves. As the host for a game, it is important to provide a surface large enough to play upon, a place for everyone to sit, reasonable facilities, and the desire to get a good game going. Whether played at a Victorian dining table lit with candelabras, on  the floor of a spartan apartment, in the library during recess, or in the back of a van on the way to a family camping trip, roleplaying games can be tailored to most any situation, as long as there’s excitement and a desire to play.

A Game Master’s Glossary
Listed below are a few terms with which all new Game Masters should be familiar. These terms are mentioned throughout the Pathfinder RPG Core Rulebook and, beyond those presented in the Common Terms section (page 11 of the Core Rulebook), are among the most important in the Game Master’s lexicon.

Adventure: An adventure is a self-contained storyline the PCs experience. An adventure is composed of a series of encounters furthering the storyline.
Campaign: A collection of stories weaving into an overreaching narrative. It may be a string of published adventures, a chain of homebrewed material, or an Adventure Path designed to be played as a series. A campaign may or may not have a definitive or predefined end point.
Campaign Arc: A sequence of adventures that mesh well with each other, usually part of a larger campaign. Game Masters often run these shorter arcs to create a story that’s more concise than a full campaign but longer than a single adventure. 
Encounter: An encounter is a short scene in which the PCs are actively doing something. Examples of encounters include a combat with a monster, a social interaction significant to the adventure’s plot, an attempt to disarm a trap, or the discovery of a mystery or clue requiring further investigation.
Metagaming: This is when characters act on information that they don’t have access to, but which their players know from the real world. Metagaming comes into play when players fail to maintain a divide between in-character knowledge and out-of-character knowledge. That could include anything from uncannily accurate in-character predictions from a player who’s already read the adventure, players recognizing monsters when their characters wouldn’t, low-Intelligence characters accessing well-educated players’ knowledge and talents, etc.Session: A session is a single bout of gaming. Not every session ties up an adventure; many adventures require multiple sessions to complete. The duration of sessions varies from group to group, from a few hours to a weekend.

« 上次编辑: 2018-08-19, 周日 14:00:50 由 丞相 »
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基调和成人度(Tone and Maturity)
« 回帖 #1 于: 2018-07-23, 周一 23:14:41 »
基调和成人度(Tone and Maturity)

      玩家来到游戏世界是为了感受比生活更伟大的东西,每个游戏都有自己的志向、愿望、能力和独特的世界观。GM的工作就是指导故事,让每个角色都能感受到她的行动的意义。这意味着倾听玩家,但是同时保持你自己的喜好。没有两个游戏组是相同的,因此讨论他们对游戏风格、基调和团队动力的偏好的团队更有可能长时间无问题的运行游戏。

游戏的风格 Style of Play
      找到适合一个团队的合适人选取决于他们对游戏风格的共同偏好和妥协的意愿。你的团队是否更愿意集中精力战斗或角色扮演?前一种风格快速地贯穿整个故事,主要集中在有趣的战术场景上。如果是后者,游戏应该强调角色的发展和故事情节,而且在没有战斗的情况下整个过程都是正常的。大多数的团队都在这个范围的中间,但是知道你的玩家最喜欢什么对于让每一个人都玩的开心是至关重要的。

基调和设定 Tone and Setting
      一旦你的玩家决定了他们想要的游戏风格,那么是时候考虑一下基调和设定了。一个对轻松的傻事更感兴趣的团体会让一个想要带恐怖团的GM失望。设定和基调决定了你是在运行一个需要由PC破解了阴谋的复杂而真实的政治游戏,还是一部涉及奇异怪物和神圣使命的高魔和高战的奇幻史诗。设定包含了你的世界的中心主题和比喻,基调是感觉,无论是现实主义还是童话故事。想要的魔法等级在开始时也是值得讨论的,因为一些玩家喜欢随时可用的魔法,而另一些玩家则它们更加专有并罕见,在他们的整个职业生涯中只找到少量魔法物品。在发起活动之前的一个简短的会议可以让你为你的玩家量身定做独特体验,并且大多数玩家都很欣赏满足每个人口味的努力。

团队风格 Group Styles
      除了专注于游戏特定的主题和风格之外,还要考虑坐在桌子周围的玩家群体。他们是在寻找一款休闲的“啤酒和椒盐脆饼”游戏,还是在寻找沉浸式的游戏?你和同一组人一起玩了很多年了吗?或者你是在会场或游戏商店中,桌子上的每个人都是完全陌生人?这些不同的团体风格中的每一种都需要GM不同的表现。休闲团体对专注度的需求较低,往往可以更容忍错误,掩盖有问题的情况,有利于闲逛和享受共同的爱好。认真的角色扮演者要求更多的关注和注意力,因为每个玩家都会在游戏中带来需要开发的复杂而有趣的角色。一些GM发现大会游戏或业余的店内游戏很难运作,因为他们缺乏新成立的团队的参考点。在这种情况下,在游戏开始前进行一些闲谈通常会提供关于玩家兴趣的线索。在游戏开始之前花点时间不仅要询问玩家,还要问问他们的角色。

保持兴趣 Retaining Interest
     聆听您的玩家不仅在寻找新的活动时,而且在故事的过程中也很重要。坐在游戏桌前的座位上,你应该可以分辨出谁正专注于此,而谁又心不在焉。我们的目标应该始终是找出那些无聊、分心或烦恼的玩家,并让他们回到游戏中(当然,不要牺牲其他人的乐趣)。如果在上一场聚会期间,当一个特定的玩家在战斗中没有轮到他时似乎感到无聊,一个特别的玩家在没有轮到她的时候看起来无聊,那就和她谈谈为什么。也许她不觉得自己的角色表现得很好,或者在战斗之外得到了足够的关注。通常只需要稍微调整一下,或者根据她的技能设置进行一次遭遇,就能让一个被剥夺权利的玩家感觉自己是团队中有价值的一部分。
    始终保持开放状态。玩家不可避免地会在GM的计划上跑偏,无论引导看起来是多么明显,或者一个楔子听起来是多么令人信服。不要害怕用自己的创造力来发挥他们的创造力。如果你有一个情节,玩家的角色正试图解开,而他们提出的解决方案比你准备好的解决方案更有意义,尝试忽略你的笔记本或出版冒险上的原始方案,并将故事转向新的方向 - 玩家永远不需要了解原始版本,您会因为玩家享受的快乐而得到完全的信任。类似地,如果玩家继续偏离正轨并参与到你计划故事之外的事件中,这可能是个信号,说明你的玩家对一种不同于你最初构思的游戏方案更感兴趣。即使你对你的游戏小组非常满意,给他们想要的一切,记住,口味会随着时间而改变。记住你的玩家喜欢什么,然后再试着以那种方式表现,但是要意识到你的玩家可能有不同的口味,可以享受各种各样的游戏类型。

敏感话题 Sensitive topics
      一些成人话题,例如食人(cannibalism)、吸毒(drug use)、血腥暴力(gory violence),亵渎(profanity),卖淫(prostitution)以及各种形式的性行为有时会出现在游戏中,并不是每个团体都以相同的方式处理它们。了解和你一起玩的人,准确地评估他们的舒适区(comfort zone),这对于保持聚会的愉快性是至关重要的。如果你预料到你的桌上有人对某些成人主题感到不舒服,那就事先和你的玩家谈谈。确定他们对问题的首选处理方式,并在决定你想在多大程度上突出这些主题时尊重他们的偏好。如果你的小组公开讨论性行为,热切地回忆起最喜欢的恐怖电影中可怕的场景,或经常出现黄色笑话,那么它可能很好,或者经常讲低俗的玩笑,那么这些主题很可能可以出现在你的战役中(但不是必须的——即使是嘴最臭的玩家或者最大的恐怖片(slasher-movie)收藏者可能仍然对某些问题敏感)。与其提前决定所有的事情,你还可以在你的冒险中一点一点地添加一些特定的元素来确定玩家的舒适程度。例如,如果你有一个好色的非玩家角色试图勾引一个玩家角色,你可以在一开始就给他一些暗示,很微妙,然后看看这个角色是否上当了。观察玩家的反应表明他们对话题的满意程度,并让你知道你可以玩得边界在哪里。当然,在点滴暗示(dropping hints)、影射(innuendos)以及生动的描述一对矮人情人之间汗水拥抱是有差别的。少量的成人内容可以走的更远。
因为战斗是游戏的核心元素,暴力如影随行。但是,正如儿童电视节目可以提供没有血腥药水的动作一样,角色扮演也有一定的范围。暴力,或者更确切地说,暴力是如何描绘的,是决定电影和视频游戏对不同年龄和情感的合适程度的一个因素,对于不同风格的游戏,也可以做出类似的决定。根据上下文,你可以用一句简单的“你用剑打了他”来描述同样的战斗,或者用更发自内心的方式来描述同样的动作:“你的剑划过他的腹部;他的皮肤就像薄薄的嘴唇,把他的内脏吐在了地上。
      成人主题是让角色对恶人恶事做出反应的绝佳方式。一个邪恶恶棍使用男人和女人作为性玩具,然后将他们勒死,即使是最平静的角色也会产生恐惧、愤怒和复仇的渴望。关于暴力的舒适度也可能随受害者的不同而变化。对于某些团体来说,虽然某些团体可能完全可以接受谋杀恶棍的恶棍,但谋杀一个孩子——即使是为了更大的利益——也可能是将边界推得过远了。事实上,涉及儿童,动物或其他无辜者可能是一场危险的游戏 - 你可能会认为虐待动物的恶棍是堕落的最终体现(因此也是一个很好的对手),但是你的玩家可能还没准备好谈论这些事情,即使是在与他们作斗争的背景下。同样重要的是,如果你喜欢一个涉及道德问题和“两害相权取其轻”的游戏,你的团队也有类似的倾向。在你看来,为了共同的目标而与一个明显的邪恶角色合作,可能是一种坚韧不拔的现实主义,但其他人可能会认为这是一种低级趣味,或者完全反对他们的角色的一致。在你看来,为了共同的目标而与一个明显的邪恶角色合作,可能是一种坚韧不拔的现实主义,但其他人可能会认为这是一种低级趣味,或者与他们角色的阵营完全对立。如果你设计了一场让你的圣骑士对他的信仰感到紧张的遭遇,确保玩家喜欢这样的事情。在所有情况下,要注意团队的敏感性,并相应地设计你的游戏。
      如果你觉得某些风格或主题可能会让你的玩家感到不快,但仍希望包括这些风格或主题,则应将该风格的游戏作为一次性行为,并将其与您的团体一起测试,而不会破坏您的定期活动。当与陌生人、年轻人或其他潜在敏感的玩家一起玩,或者在公共场所玩时,最好将任何成年人的内容排除在游戏之外。虽然社会在某种程度上容忍暴力,但其他成人话题更适合更私密、更成熟的群体。记住,有些玩家可能不希望在他们轻松的每周游戏中看到真实世界的话题。最重要的是,了解你的玩家——你越了解与你一起游戏的团体喜好,游戏就会越有趣。
劇透 -   :
Players come to games to feel larger than life, and each brings a character that has aspirations, desires, abilities, and unique ways of looking at the world. The Game Master’s job is to help guide the story and involve each character in a way that makes her actions feel meaningful. This means listening to the players while simultaneously keeping your own preferences in mind. No two gaming groups are the same, so groups that discuss their preferences for styles of play, tone, and group dynamics are more likely to enjoy long-running, trouble-free games.
Style of Play
Finding the right fit with a group depends on a shared preference of styles of play and the willingness to compromise. Does your group prefer to focus more on
combat or roleplaying? The former style moves quickly through the story and centers primarily on fun tactical situations. If it’s the latter, games should highlight character development and storyline, and it wouldn’t be unusual to have an entire session pass without combat. Most groups fit somewhere in the wide middle of this spectrum, but knowing what your players enjoy most is crucial to keeping everyone entertained.
Tone And Setting
Once your players decide what style of game they’re looking for, it’s time to consider tone and setting. A group that’s more interested in lighthearted silliness will disappoint a Game Master wanting to run a creepy horror campaign. Setting and tone determine whether you’re running a complex, gritty political game in which the PCs unravel conspiracies or a high-magic and high-action fantasy epic involving bizarre monsters and divine mandates. Setting encompasses the central themes and
tropes of your world, and tone is the feel, whether that’s gritty realism or fairy-tale derring-do. The desired magic level is also worth discussing early on, as some players like readily available magic, while others prefer it to be exclusive and rare, only finding a handful of magic items throughout their entire career. A short meeting before launching the campaign allows you to tailor the experience for your players, and most players appreciate the effort to satisfy everyone’s tastes.
Group Styles
In addition to focusing on the game-specific themes and styles, consider the group of players sitting around the table. Are they looking for a casual “beer and pretzels” game, or are they committed roleplayers looking for a deeply immersive campaign? Have you been playing with the same group for years?  Is everyone at the table
a complete stranger in a session you’re running at a convention or a game store? Each of these different group styles requires a different performance from the Game Master. Casual groups require less focus and can often be more forgiving of mistakes, glossing over problematic situations in favor of hanging out and enjoying a shared hobby. Committed roleplayers can demand significantly more focus and attention, as each player brings a complex and interesting character in need of development within the game. Some Game Masters find convention play or hobby store play difficult because they lack a point of reference for the newly formed group. In these cases, a bit of small talk before the game begins often offers cues as to players’ interests. Use time before play begins to ask a few focused questions about not only the players, but also their characters.
Retaining Interest
    Listening to your players is important not only when looking to start a new campaign but also during the course of the story. From your seat at the game table, you can tell who’s engaged and who’s not. The goal should always be to figure out what’s going to grab the bored, distracted, or annoyed players and get them back in the game (without sacrificing the fun of the others, of course). If during the last game session a particular player seemed bored when it wasn’t her turn at combat, make a point to chat with her about the reasons why. Maybe she doesn’t feel like her character is performing well or getting enough of the spotlight outside of combat. It often only takes a slight tweak or a single encounter tailored to her skill set to make a disenfranchised player feel like a valuable part of the group.
    Always be open to switching things up. Players inevitably throw wrenches into the Game Master’s plans, despite how obvious a lead seems or how convincing a hook sounds. Don’t be afraid to play off their creativity the same way they do with yours. If you have a plot the characters are trying to unravel, and the solutions they come up with make more sense than your prepared ones, try ignoring the original resolution from your notebook or a published adventure and turning the story in a new direction—the players never need know about the original version, and you can take full credit for their enjoyment. Similarly, if the players keep going off track and getting involved in events outside of your planned story, that might be a sign that your players are interested in a different sort of game than you originally crafted. And even if you have great empathy with your gaming group and give them everything they want, remember that tastes can change over time. Remember what your players enjoyed and try to perform in that way again, but realize your players likely have varied palates and can enjoy a wide range of game types.
few focused questions about not only the players, but also their characters.
Sensitive topics
      Mature themes like cannibalism, drug use, gory violence, profanity, prostitution, and various forms of sexuality sometimes come up in the game, and not every group deals with them in the same way. Knowing the group of people you’re playing with and accurately gauging their comfort zone is crucial to keeping a session enjoyable. If you anticipate anyone at your table being uncomfortable with certain mature themes, talk to your players beforehand. Determine their preferred treatment of the issues, and respect their preferences when deciding how heavily you want to play up those themes. If your group openly discusses sexuality, fondly recalls the gruesome scenes from a favorite horror film, or makes frequent off-color jokes, then it’s probably fine including those themes in your campaign (though not necessarily—the player with the filthiest mouth or biggest slasher-movie collection might still be sensitive to certain issues). Instead of deciding everything ahead of time, you can also seed given elements into your adventure bit by bit to determine players’ comfort level. For example, if you have a lecherous nonplayer character attempting to seduce a player character, drop a few hints, subtle at first, and see if the character takes the bait. Watching the player’s reaction indicates their comfort level with the topic and lets you know how close to the boundary you can play. And of course, there’s a difference between dropping hints and innuendos and graphically describing the dwarven lovers’ sweaty embrace. A little mature content goes a long way.
女王的杂技团
丞相就是个搞翻译的,懂个屁的跑团

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The GM as Host
« 回帖 #2 于: 2018-07-23, 周一 23:16:11 »
作为主持者(组织者)的GM The GM as Host
      GM的主要工作是运行这个游戏,但除了扔骰子和安排游戏中的挑战之外,还有更多的任务。作为团队中对游戏成功负有最大责任的成员,GM也是每一次聚会的实际主人,负责处理或委派乐趣背后的后勤工作。
      聚会的社交内容和游戏本身的质量一样重要。 考虑到工作、家庭和生活的压力,成年游戏玩家可能很少有时间进行社交活动,因此游戏之夜成为与朋友共度时光的受欢迎的机会,就像玩桌游、看电影或玩扑克一样。就像任何一个聚会一样,前后都有工作要做。
      以下一些问题可以委托给愿意参与的玩家,但最终,所有这些都是GM的责任。

玩家的数量 Number of Players
      在游戏开始之前,由GM来决定邀请多少名玩家参与。  虽然对于一个游戏可以容纳多少玩家没有确定的最小或最大限制,但这个选择很大程度上取决于GM预计他能够轻松管理的玩家数量,以及这次游戏目前预期的空间有哪些限制。 尽管大多数已发布的冒险都为四个角色的派对带来了挑战,但任何遭遇都可以轻松定制,以满足任何规模团体的需求。

小型团体 Small Groups
      两到三人组成的小型团体可以进行一些更为尖锐的角色扮演,但是他们需要你仔细的指定你的挑战以应对更少的玩家。你还需要对团队内可能缺少的任何重要能力进行弥补。
      实现后者的一个简单方法是消除对这些能力的需求。例如,如果团队缺少一个盗贼,你可能希望从该团队的旅途中移除陷阱和锁。另一种方法是引入一个具有所需能力的NPC——只要NPC不会抢走聚光灯。或者,你可以给角色一些魔法物品来执行必要的功能,比如为没有治疗者的团队提供治疗药水和魔杖。 最后但同样重要的,如果玩家有足够的经验,你可能会享受让每个玩家扮演两个角色以完善团队的情况。

大型团体 Large Groups
       六名以上的玩家可以提供更多的角色选择,但他们也会变得更加嘈杂,更难管理。角色越多,战斗就会变得越复杂,每个人等待轮到自己的时间也就越长,这使得分心和侧谈变得更容易失控,或者让天生害羞的玩家被忽视。通常情况下,最好一次不要超过6名玩家,除非你有足够的经验,可以在不查找大量规则的情况下让战斗顺利进行。游戏辅助工具,比如GameMastery战斗板(就乐博睿众筹里那个),也能让你在大型团体中更容易追踪先攻或者诸如此类的东西。

寻找玩家 Finding Players
      一旦你知道你想要多少玩家,就该组织一个团队了。首先,和你想带上的朋友和家人谈谈。只要有足够的共同兴趣,混合年龄是可以的。
      如果你的游戏还有空位,你可以考虑那些你还不认识或略有了解的人。同事和朋友的朋友通常是第一个被包括在这个集合里,特别是如果你的玩家已经把你的游戏安利给其他人。
      除了这些个人联系之外,还有许多其他方法可以找到玩家。 尝试联系当地的游戏商店,了解如何填写您的联系信息,或者查看您学校或当地大学是否有游戏俱乐部。互联网上提供免费的分类广告,或者留言板可以为你提供成千上万玩家的即时访问,还有一些网站专门致力于帮助本地游戏玩家相互联系,例如paizo.com上的Gamer Connection论坛。(当然,安全永远是第一位的——你应该在有很多人的公共场所会见陌生人,在你信任别人之前,不要透露比电子邮件地址更多的个人信息。)
      最后但同样重要的,当有疑问时,去玩家会去的地方。参加当地的游戏大会,科幻电影首映,或者其他玩家可能感兴趣的活动。和那里的人交谈,如果你找到一个住在附近的玩家,就告诉他们你在寻找玩家,并提供联系信息。如果你不想自己招人,你可以让一个或多个玩家来处理,但是一个好的方法是,在邀请他们参加游戏之前,让他们先把所有潜在的新玩家都交给你,甚至是整个团队来进行审核。
      警告:与任何聚会一样,确保您邀请参加游戏的每个人都与其他人相处是很重要的。虽然你不能预测每一场游戏的结果,但你可以尽力避免明显的问题——这可能是一个玩家的风格与团队的其他成员不匹配(参见第三章的问题玩家),或者是一名新玩家身上有明显的冲突点,比如是一名现有玩家的前配偶。很多游戏团体因为玩家之间的冲突而分崩离析。因此,当你尝试一个新玩家的时候,最好先发出一个有限的邀请,比如单次冒险,然后再决定。不要让一个不适合你游戏的潜在玩家,让他现在在聚会中的朋友——或者更糟糕的是,潜在玩家本人——强迫你邀请他回来。

去哪里玩 Where to Play
最佳的游戏空间有以下特点:
* 一个交通流量低的房间,游戏不会受到非玩家或者其他区域噪音的干扰。
* 每个人都可以坐下的舒适环境,有良好的角度观看游戏桌面,而且有骰骰子和写笔记的空间。
* 一个大而平坦的游戏桌面,有战斗和摆放模型的空间。
* 放置规则书、地图、笔记和其他必需品的额外空间。
* 有书架来保存参考资料
* 方便获取零食、饮料,还有一个厕所。

建筑 The Building
      作为GM,最方便的当然是在自己家里玩,因为你所有的游戏内容都已经在那里了。玩家通常拥有较少的书籍,并且在游戏过程中往往依赖GM副本作为参考。如果你和你的玩家使用了大量的书籍和补充品,很难把它们都扔到别人的家里——如果你只拿了一些,你几乎肯定会忘记一个人想要的。然而,在任何一个成员的家里设置村村点也不错,特别是如果他们的房间可以在游戏之间有存储游戏资料的话。
      一些团体会轮换房间,这样的安排有很多好处——特别是不会有一个人总是要去打扫游戏后不可避免的混乱局面,对任何一个家庭的日常生活造成的干扰也比较小。此外,你可以将一些任务委托给住在那里的玩家————尤其是零食、饮料和其他物质享受。让这种安排生效的关键是,要么确保所有家庭都准备好获取所需的物品,要么让玩家每次都带上这些材料。
      有些团体在当地的游戏商店里玩,有的在前厅,有的在后面的房间里。如果商店认同角色扮演者,那么店主可能会认为,在顾客可以看到的地方进行定期的活动是一件很好的事情。
这种安排需要每个人都有耐心,因为聚会可能会在游戏期间和善的和观众打招呼并回答他们的问题。它还要求保持游戏对家庭友好,因为有孩子的父母可能正在观看。如果你一直在寻找更多的玩家,公共游戏可以成为一个很好的招募工具。如果你的游戏是封闭式的,那么商店后台可能是更好的选择。
      天气好的时候,在谷仓或露台上玩,甚至是在野餐桌旁或草地上玩也很有趣——只要确保把人物角色表和笔记压下来,这样当风来临时你就不必追着它们跑了。

房间  The Room
传统的游戏空间是一个足以坐下GM和所有玩家的桌子,但这并不是绝对必要的。餐桌是经常被选中的地方,因为它提供了足够的空间以放置战斗板和模型,以及大量的座位。然而,餐厅往往是一个房子中中心并且高人流量的地方,并且通常不是保存游戏图书的地方。 一个小房间,每个人都可以轻松地看到和听到其他人,再加上一点摆放地图和模型的空间,也能起到同样的效果。如果你和别人住在一起,一定要确保你们不会打扰到其他人,而且其他人的的日常活动也不会打扰到你。

啥时候玩 When to Play
      有时候游戏并不难安排。如果你和你的玩家都住在大学宿舍里,那么你每天晚上在一起玩游戏都不会有问题。但是如果你或者你的玩家有其他的责任,安排日程就会成为一个大问题。
      最简单的方法之一就是有一个规律的时间表。有些活动是每周进行一次,有些是每两周进行一次,还有一些是每月进行一次。更频繁的游戏比较罕见,而且通常是不可持续的。间隔时间长达两个月以上的游戏也同样无法持续,因为玩家往往会在一段时间后忘记发生了什么。对于许多人来说,每周的游戏是最理想的,因为它很容易记住。对于上班族来说,周末往往更好,但对于任何一个人来说,坚持每一个周末都是不可能的。工作日放学后可能对父母和学生都有好处,但选择一天却很棘手,因为运动和俱乐部会议可能会耽搁很长时间。
      如果您决定参加双周游戏或每月游戏,您可能希望延长聚会时间。如果您的家庭适合客人过夜,请尝试安排持续一整天的月度游戏 - 甚至是每周末游戏。对于举行频率较低的游戏,请务必在下一个聚会即将到来时提醒所有人。您还需要准备好前一次冒险中发生的事情,这样玩家就能知道上次离开的时候角色在哪里。
      如果您选择不定期的时间表,则需要安排每个聚会,这可能会更困难,因为玩家没法选择总是保留特定的日子。可以在每一次聚会结束的时候或者经由群组邮件或电话来安排不定期的游戏。

劇透 -   :
The GM as Host
      The GM's primary job is to run the game, but there's more to that task than just rolling dice and orchestrating in-game challenges. As the group member most responsible for the game's success, the GM is also the de facto host for each session, in charge of handling or delegating the logistics behind the fun.
      The social side of a session is at least as important as the quality of the game itself. Adult gamers might rarely get time to socialize, given the pressures of jobs, families, and homes, so game night becomes a welcome chance to spend time with friends, no different than a night of board games, movies, or poker. And like any party, there's work to be done both before and after.
      Some of the following issues can be delegated to a willing player, but ultimately, all of them are the GM's responsibility.

Number of Players
Before a game ever begins it's up to the GM to decide how many players to invite to play. While there is no firm minimum or maximum limit to how many players a game can accommodate, this choice is largely a matter of how many players the GM expects he can comfortably manage and what limitations a game's expected play space present. Although most published adventures present challenges for parties with four characters, any encounter can easily be customized to suit the needs of any size group.
Small Groups
      Groups of two or three can allow for more intense roleplaying, but they require you to carefully craft your challenges to be appropriate for fewer players. You'll also need to compensate for any major abilities that may be missing from the party.
      A simple way to accomplish the latter is to eliminate the need for those abilities. For example, if the party lacks a rogue, you may wish to remove traps and locks from the party's path. Another method is to introduce an NPC who has the needed abilities—just so long as that NPC doesn't steal the spotlight. Alternatively, you can give the characters magic items that perform the necessary function, such as healing potions and wands for the party without a healer. Last but not least, if the players are experienced enough to handle it, you might enjoy letting each player play two characters to round out the group.
Large Groups
     Groups of more than six players offer more character options, but they also tend to be louder and harder to manage. The more characters there are, the more complex combat becomes and the longer each person has to wait for his turn, making it easier for distractions and side conversations to get out of hand or for naturally shy players to be overlooked. It's generally best not to take on more than six players at a time unless you're experienced enough to make combat move along smartly without looking up a lot of rules. Game aids like the GameMastery Combat Pad also make it easier to keep track of things like initiative with a large group.

Finding Players
      Once you know how many players you'd like to have, it's time to organize a group. Start by talking to friends and family members you'd like to include. Mixing ages is fine so long as there are enough common interests.
      If there's still room at your game table, you can consider people you don't yet know or know only tangentially. Coworkers and friends of friends are usually the first to be included in this set, especially if your players have sung the praises of your game to other people.、
      Outside of such personal contacts, there are a number of other ways to find players. Try contacting a local game store about putting up a f lier with your contact
information, or see if there's a gaming club at your school or the local college. The Internet offers instant access to thousands of gamers via free classified ads or message boards, and there are several websites specifically devoted to helping local gamers connect, such as the Gamer Connection forum on paizo.com. (Of course, safety always comes first—you should meet strangers in public places with plenty of people around and should never give out more personal information than an email address until you trust someone.)
      Last but not least, when in doubt, go where the gamers are. Attend a local game convention, science fiction movie opening, or other event that might be of interest to gamers. Talk to people there, and if you find a gamer who lives nearby, mention that you're looking for players and provide contact information.If you don't want to do the recruiting yourself, you can allow one or more players to handle it, but it's a good idea to ask that they run any potential new players past you—or even the whole group—for approval before inviting them to a session.
      A word of warning: As with any party, it's important to make sure that everyone you invite to your game gets along with the rest. While you can't predict every conf lict, you can do your best to avoid obvious problems—this might be a player whose style doesn't match the rest of the group (see Problem Players in Chapter Three), or a player with a more obvious conf lict, such as a current player's ex-spouse. A lot of gaming groups fall apart because of interplayer conf lict. As a result, when taking a chance on a new player, it's generally best to issue a limited invitation, such as for a single adventure, and then decide from there. Don't let a party member who's friends with a potential player—or worse, the potential player himself—pressure you into inviting him back if he isn't right for your game.

Where to Play
The optimum gaming space has the following features.
·A low-traffic room, where the game won't be disturbed by nonplayers or noise from other areas.
·A comfortable place for everyone to sit, with a good view of the gaming surface, plus space for rolling dice  and writing notes.
·A large, flat playing surface with room for  a battlemat andminiatures.
·Extra space for rulebooks, maps, notes, and other essentials.
·Bookshelves to hold reference materials.
·Easy access to snacks, beverages, and a bathroom.
The Building
      It's often most convenient for you as GM to play in your own house, since all your gaming stuff is already there. Players usually have fewer books and tend to depend on GM copies for reference during games. If you and your players use a great many books and supplements, it's hard to lug them all to someone else's house—and if you take only a few, you'll almost certainly forget one that someone wants. Yet setting up shop at whichever member's house is best suited for it works as well, especially if there's room to store gaming materials between games.
      Some groups successfully rotate houses, and there's a lot of merit in such an arrangement—no one is always stuck with cleaning up the inevitable post-game mess, and the disruption to any single household's routine is minimal. Furthermore, you can delegate some of the hosting duties to the player who lives there—particularly the snacks, beverages, and physical comforts. The key to making such an arrangement work is to either ensure that all the households have ready access to the needed materials, or else delegate players to bring them each time.
      Some groups play in the local game shop, either out in the open or in a back room. If the shop caters to roleplayers, the owners might consider it good business to have a regular campaign running where customers can see it. This arrangement requires some patience on the part of everyone at the table, since the party will likely be expected to greet watchers pleasantly and answer their questions during the game. It also requires keeping the game family-friendly, as parents with children may be watching. If you've been looking for more players, a public game can be a great recruiting tool. If your game is closed, the back room of the game store may be a better bet.
      In nice weather, playing outside in a barn or gazebo, or even at a picnic table or on the grass can be fun too—just be sure to weight down character sheets and notes so you don't have to chase them when the wind picks up.
The Room
The traditional gaming space is a table big enough to seat all the players and the GM, but that's not strictly necessary. The dinner table is often the surface of choice because it provides enough space for a battlemat and minis, plus plenty of seating. However, the dining room tends to be a central, high-traffic space in a house, and it usually isn't where a game library is kept. A small room where everyone can easily see and hear everyone else, with a bit of f loor space for a map and minis, can work just as well. If you share your abode with other people, make sure that your presence won't disturb the rest of the household and that its regular activities won't disturb you.

When to PlAy
       Sometimes games aren't hard to schedule. If you and your players all live near each other in college dorms, you might have no trouble getting a game together every night. But if you or your players have other responsibilities, scheduling can become a major headache.
      One of the easiest ways is to have a regular schedule. Some campaigns are played weekly, others biweekly, and still others monthly. More frequent games are rare and usually unsustainable, as are games with more than a month between them, since players tend to forget what's going on after a while. A weekly game is optimal for many people since it's easy to remember. Weekends tend to be better for working people, but constant weekend availability is probably impossible for any one person. Weekdays after school may work for parents and students, but choosing a day can be tricky, since sports and club meetings may interfere for long periods.
      If you do decide to go for biweekly or monthly games, you may want to make the sessions longer. Try scheduling an entire day for a monthly game—or even a weekend, if your household is up to overnight guests. For a game with low meeting frequency, be sure to remind everyone when the next session is coming up. You'll also need to prepare a good recap of what happened in the previous adventure so the players know where the characters were when you left off.
      If you opt for an irregular schedule, you'll need to schedule every session, which can be more difficult, as players don't have the option of always leaving certain days open. Scheduling an irregular game can happen at the end of each session or via group emails and phone calls.
« 上次编辑: 2019-03-16, 周六 22:27:00 由 丞相 »
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Rules of the House
« 回帖 #3 于: 2018-07-23, 周一 23:16:34 »
房规 Rules of the House
      一旦你有了一个可以游戏的地方以及一个第一次聚会的日程,是时候决定你的战役需要什么样的“房规”了。虽然这个术语通常是指对游戏机制的修改,但是房规其实也可以是字面意义上的这间房子中要遵守的规则。包括游戏桌上的基本的礼貌和活动。下面将讨论一些典型的房规,但这个列表绝不是详尽的。在游戏开始前,和你的玩家讨论问题和处理问题的方法,确保每个人都同意遵守最后的决定。如果你发现在游戏进行过程中需要一个新的房规,那么在游戏之外与你的玩家交谈,然后在下一节中实施新规则,在游戏开始之前提醒玩家。

玩家缺席 Player Absence
       当一个玩家缺席会议时,会发生的情况,以及一些常见的解决方案。
由另一位玩家操控该角色。这是一个简单的解决方案,但要注意的是,其他玩家可能不擅长这个职业,或者根本无法想出适当的行动。如果角色死亡,缺席的玩家将不可避免地感到悲伤——而且也很合理。即使角色幸存下来,其他玩家几乎肯定会以不同的方式来玩,这可能会给角色或团队带来不幸的后果。当每个玩家指定一个特定的人来扮演她的角色时,这种安排就有一个很好的机会来发挥作用。

由GM来扮演该角色作为NPC。这个解决方案提供了一些与交给其他玩家相同的问题。作为GM,您有足够的操作能力——您无需为在游戏中扮演PC而需要额外的麻烦。尽管你可能比其他玩家更加谨慎,不太可能将PC杀掉(毕竟你知道她将会面临哪些挑战),但你可能将无法向正常那样对玩家给予足够的关注,并且任何负面后果都可能引起玩家的不满。

这个角色暂时离开团队去做幕后的工作。这种解决办法通常是可行的,尽管玩家们可能强烈地感觉到在聚会期间缺乏这种角色的技能。有时你可能不得不扮演一个角色来完成战斗,但短期的撤退通常是有效的。这种方案的主要问题在于,你必须提供一个合理的游戏内退出和重新进入的机会,并将这些机会与故事情节联系起来。

角色从团队中消失,并且在玩家回来时重新出现,并且没有注意到这一事件。这个解决方案非常简单,但是他需要一定程度的熟悉才能实现。角色本来在这里,然后就消失了,过了一会儿又出现了。GM不需要为她找其他的事情做,也不需要为她安排出口和重新进入。当她再次出现的时候,角色可能知道她不在的时候发生了什么,也可能不知道,这取决于团队的喜好。

取消聚会 Calling off A session
       在收到多少个鸽子讯息后,你才会取消今晚的活动?这个问题的答案可能取决于你的团队的规模。显然如果你只有一到两名玩家,那么任何一个人的缺席都会导致游戏无法进行。对于一个更大的团体来说,你拥有更多的灵活性。一些GM会规定一次活动不得少于两到三名玩家。另一些人则会要求一个更大的团体。
      一种方法可以解决只有一半的玩家可以参加聚会,那就是分开聚会,让在场的人在晚上进行一场小型意外冒险。在这种情况下,运作一场小型冒险是值得的。
      如果缺席成为一个长期问题,加入总有一两个人会有日程冲突,一些GM可能会选择邀请比他们活动所需更多的参与者参加进来。虽然旋转玩家阵容很有趣,但这种方法也需要玩家和GM一起快速和松散地进行连续性和记录......并且要求GM在所有人出现时都能轻松地运行一个大组。


桌上的食物 Food at the Game table
      虽然可以坚持不让玩家在游戏桌上吃喝,但要执行这样的规则却很难。角色扮演需要很长时间,人们会感到饥饿和口渴。你可以在另一张桌子上或另一个房间里摆放零食,但不管怎样,这些东西都有可能找到一条到达游戏桌的路。
      如果你决定在餐桌上吃东西,你就必须为不可避免的混乱做好准备。把毛巾放在桌子旁边,迅速清理掉洒在桌子上的饮料,并鼓励使用塑料护页纸来做角色卡。出于同样的原因,不要把参考书放在桌子上。
      还要注意,食物和饮料不是免费的。如果你轮换地点,你可以规定准备零食是游戏地点房主的责任,或要求每个人都带一份零食或饮料来分享,或者在每次聚会上简单地轮流负责零食费用。

儿童和宠物 Children And Pets
    如果你们进行游戏的屋子里有非常年幼的儿童,最好让他们远离游戏房间。如果做不到,那么每个人都需要保证骰子和模型远离地板,因为这些东西可能会造成窒息。
    宠物也会在游戏桌上造成问题。如果有人对动物皮毛过敏,礼貌地要求不要让动物进入房间。这个解决方案也防止狗狗随机扫尾造成战斗地图上清场,或猫把模型变成猫玩具。尽管如此,如果每个人都喜欢和动物们在一起,那么允许它们的存在也没什么问题。

游戏桌上的其他活动 Other Activities at the Game Table
       尽管你会为此付出最大努力,但你并不总是能够让所有玩家都参与到这一活动中。大型战斗可能会拖延,如果你有很多伙伴坐在桌边,玩家的下一个回合可能需要相当长的时间。此外,队伍可能会分裂,需要你把注意力分配到不同的群体。
       在这种情况下,玩家可能想要用其他活动来填充回合之间的时间。有人可能会带一本书,一个针织项目或一些人物来画画。其他人可能会花时间创造新的角色。最后,一些玩家可能会坐下来讨论游戏外的话题。只要交替进行的活动不会打扰正在行动的玩家,或其他玩家的注意力,那么允许它们就可以了。然而,如果他们开始分散行动玩家的注意力,以至于他无法了解游戏中发生了什么,那么团队可能想要禁止这些活动,或者干脆换一个活动。
      如果其他的活动干扰了其他的玩家,你可以要求那些相关的人转移到另一个区域,远离桌子。仅仅是搬到客厅的沙发上就足够了——那些参与者仍然可以听到动作,但是其他玩家看不到他们在做什么。或者,那些不参与这项活动的人可以制作爆米花,给人们的饮料加满饮料,并捡起零食碎片。这样做可以让他们有机会在另一个房间里聊上一段时间。

超游交谈 Out-of-Character Talking
      角色扮演需要大量的角色内对话,但在游戏桌上也会发生大量的角色外对话。当谈话是关于科学家庭作业或水管工待会儿过来时,通常不难将它们分开。但是当玩家们正在谈论如何处理兽人囚犯时,GM很难确定他们是实际上是在进行威胁还是只是理论化的讨论,如果NPC通过对某些事情作出反应,而这实际是一个玩家的角色性格不打算说的,就会出现问题。
     一种选择是要求玩家站起来或者在说话时做一个特定的手势。或者,你可以让每个人在说话时都使用口音。只要每个人都了解这一协定,该小组就只需要几次聚会就能习惯它。

玩家间冲突 Inter Player Conflict
      虽然冒险团体的成员间通常都有着相同的目标,但是他们可能并不总是能融洽相处。有些团体争端是由于游戏内部的冲突引起的,比如盟友或者历史因素。而其他则是因为角色背后的玩家间相互的不满。
      大部分的团队内部争执并没有害处,甚至有些还很有趣,但是如果玩家间相互对立,那么就是时候介入了。强烈建议在这种情况下进行游戏外讨论,如禁止内部决斗和盗窃,鼓励玩家作为一个团队工作而不是再分成小组,因为这样会减少每个人的游戏时间。

劇透 -  原文:
Rules of the House
Once you have a place to play and a date for your first session, it’s time to decide what “house rules” are needed for your campaign. While the term normally refers to modifications to the mechanics of the game, house rules can also be the literal rules of the house, covering the basic courtesies and dynamics of the game table. Some typical house rules are discussed below, but this list is by no means exhaustive. Discuss the issues and the options for handling them with your players before play begins, and make sure everyone agrees to abide by the final decision. If you see a need for a new house rule as play proceeds, talk to your players outside of the game, then implement the new rule at the next session, reminding the group about it before play begins.

PlAyer Absence
What happens to a character when its player is absent from a session Below are some of the most common solutions.
Another player plays the character. This is a simple solution, but be warned that the other player may be unskilled with the class or simply unable to think of appropriate actions. If the character dies, the absent player is inevitably distressed—and legitimately so. Even if the character survives, the other player will almost certainly play it differently, which may result in unfortunate consequences for the character or the party. This arrangement has the best chance of working when each player designates a specific person to play her character, with no holds barred.
The GM plays the character as an NPC. This solution presents some of the same problems as giving the character to another player. As GM, you have enough to handle—you don’t need the additional hassle of trying to run a PC in the game. Though you may be more cautious with the character than another player and are less likely to get the PC killed (since you know what challenges she will face), you won’t be able to give as much attention as the regular player would, and any negative consequences are likely to bring resentment from the player.
The character leaves the group to do something behind the scenes. This solution is usually workable, though the party may keenly feel the lack of that character’s skills during the session. Sometimes you might have to play the character for a bit to finish a combat, but a short-term withdrawal usually works. The main problem with this technique is that you must provide a logical in-game exit and re-entrance opportunity, and tie those in with the storyline.
The character disappears from the group, reappears when the player does, and no notice is taken of the event. This solution is quite simple, but it requires a degree of maturity to pull off. The character was there, then simply is not. After a time, she’s there again. The GM does not need to find something else for her to do or stage an exit and re-entrance. When she reappears, the character may know what happened in her absence, or may not, depending on the group’s preference.

Calling off A session
After how many bail-outs do you call off the game for the night The answer to this question may depend on the size of your group. Obviously, if you have only one or two players, then a single absence makes play infeasible. With a larger group, you have more f lexibility. Some GMs make it a rule to run for no fewer than two or three players. Others require a larger percentage of the party.
     One way to deal with a session that only half the players can attend is to split the party and allow those present to pursue a side adventure for an evening. In this case, it pays to keep a small-group adventure available.
    If absences become a chronic problem, some GMs may choose to invite slightly more players into a campaign than they need, with the assumption that one or two will always have scheduling conflicts. While it can be fun to have a rotating cast, this method can also require both the players and the GM to play fast and loose with continuity and bookkeeping... and requires the GM to be comfortable running a big group if everyone shows up.

Food at the Game table
While it’s possible to insist that players not eat or drink at the game table, it’s hard to enforce such a rule. Roleplaying sessions take a long time, and people get hungry and thirsty. You can set up snacks on a separate table or in a different room, but they’re likely to find their way to the game table anyway.
    If you decide to allow food at the table, you’ll have to prepare for the inevitable messes. Keep towels at the table to quickly clean up spilled beverages, and encourage the use of plastic page protectors for character sheets. It’s a good idea to keep reference books off the table for the same reason.
    Also note that food and beverages aren’t free. If you rotate locations, you can agree that snacks are the responsibility of the house where the game occurs, ask that everyone bring a snack or beverage to share, or simply pass the hat at each session for contributions to the snack fund.

Children And Pets
If the house where you play has very young children, it’s best to keep them out of the game room altogether. If this isn’t possible, then everyone must be sure to keep dice and minis off the f loor, as such objects may constitute choking hazards.
    Pets can likewise cause problems at the game table. If anyone is allergic to animal fur, courtesy demands that the animals be kept out of the room. This solution also
prevents a random doggy tail swipe from clearing the battlemat, or a kitty from turning the minis into cat toys. Still, if everyone enjoys the company of the animals, it may be fine to allow their presence.

Other Activities at the Game Table
Despite your best efforts, you won’t always be able to keep all your players engaged with the action. Large combats may drag, and if you have a lot of people at the table, it may take quite a while for a player’s next turn to come up. Furthermore, the party may split, requiring you to divide your attention between groups.
     In such situations, players may want to fill the time between turns with other activities. Someone might bring a book, a knitting project, or some figures to paint. Others might spend the time creating new characters. Finally, some players might sit and chat about out-of-game topics. As long as the alternate activities aren’t distracting either the player involved or the other players from the game, it’s probably fine to allow them. If they start distracting the player involved to the point where he can’t follow what’s happening in-game, however, the group may want to ban those activities, or simply ask him to find another.
    If the alternate activities are disturbing the other players, you can ask that those involved move to another area, away from the table. Just moving over to the living room couch may suffice—those involved can still hear the action, but the other players won’t see what they’re doing. Alternatively, those not involved with the action could make the popcorn, refill people’s beverages, and pick up the snack debris. Doing so can provide them with an opportunity to chat in another room for a while.

Out-of-Character Talking
Roleplaying requires lots of in-character conversation, but plenty of out-of-character chatter happens at the game table as well. It’s not usually difficult to separate them when the table talk is about the science homework or the plumber’s impending visit. But when the players are talking about what to do with the orc prisoner, it can be tough for the GM to determine whether they’re actually making threats or just theorizing, which can lead to problems if the NPCs show their hands by reacting to something a player didn’t intend to say in character.
      One option is to simply require a player to stand up or make a specific hand gesture when talking out of character. Alternatively, you could have everyone use an accent when speaking in character. As long as everyone understands the convention, it should take the group only a few sessions to become used to it.

Inter Player Conflict
Though the members of adventuring parties usually have common goals, they don’t always get along. Some party disputes arise from in-character conf licts, such as alignment or history. Others happen because the players behind the characters are angry at one another.
    Most party bickering isn’t harmful, and some may even be entertaining. However, if party members draw steel against one another, it’s probably time to intervene. A house rule that mandates an out-of-game discussion when such a situation occurs is highly recommended, as are rules discouraging intraparty duels and theft and encouraging players to work as a team rather than splitting off into groups, which results in less game time for everyone.
« 上次编辑: 2018-08-19, 周日 14:10:44 由 丞相 »
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Preparing to Run a Game
« 回帖 #4 于: 2018-07-23, 周一 23:17:06 »
准备运作游戏 Preparing to Run a Game
伟大的GM会让运作游戏看起来很容易,他将令人难忘的角色、屏息忘神的动作以及生动的描述编制成一副令人难忘的奇幻挂毯。在一个运行良好的游戏中的玩家会有一种危险感(以及克服它的成就感),另外,随着事件的展开和角色的不断涌现,一种普遍的自发性情绪也会迎合新的挑战。这种神奇的体验需要充分的准备,甚至是一种自发的感觉 - 当你用笔记来调度时,会显得很不自然。

需要在桌上备好的东西 Things to Have At the Tabel
清单上的用品和材料就是你需要的那种可以让游戏不至于因为你的笨手笨脚而脱离控制的道具。
    规则书和其他游戏资料(Rulebooks and Other Game Materials):无论使用的是什么规则,你需要一份规则文件,以及处理玩家角色能力的任何补充或扩展的文件。如果这是一本经常被玩家引用的书,通常要求玩家提供他们自己的副本。
骰子(Dice):骰子供应不足会使游戏变慢。 至少,确保每个玩家都拥有游戏中最常用的全套骰子:d4,d6,d8,d10,d12和d20。
    书写材料(Writing Materials):每个人都需要一支铅笔和一些便条纸。 此外,最好留一些空白角色卡在手边。
    微缩模型(Miniatures):许多GM使用微缩模型来跟踪操作。 这些在冒险场景的比例图上效果最好,通常与可擦写地图(例如GameMastery Flip-Mats)一起使用,在网格上进行战斗,当然也可以用于正确的电脑设备按比例投影或打印的地图。
    道具和相关用品(Props and Associated Supplies):道具和玩家手册,如重要物品的草图、玩家参考地图和书面笔记,可以加快游戏速度,并有助于保持玩家的兴趣。



做好准备的七个要素 Seven Essentials for Good Preparation
究竟需要什么样的准备,游戏和游戏之间都是不尽相同的。然而,如果你遵循这个清单,你将准备好任何事情。

了解角色和玩家 Know the Characters and Players
拿着所有的角色卡,坐下来好好的读一遍。考虑每个角色在游戏中可以做什么——主要能力,次要能力,特殊能力和内在的特性。有助于您预测玩家在任何特定情况下可能会做些什么。
    特别注意自动或被动生效的能力,例如,检测即将发生的危险或注意隐藏的门的能力。这由你确定这些能力在什么时候和如何生效。
    了解你的玩家可以做到的和了解他们的角色一样重要。许多玩家用他们的角色的能力来开发喜爱的技巧和特技,或者会对他们的角色能做什么或不能做什么有根深蒂固的误解。知道这些偏好可以帮助你保持玩家的参与和挑战,并且可以在骰子落在桌上之前就解决问题。

了解场景 Know the Scene
要熟悉动作发生的场景。如果你正在带一个正式出版的团,仔细阅读。你不仅应该知道基本问题的答案(“天花板有多高?”),也应该能够传达感官细节。
    接下来,花一点时间去熟悉每个冒险地点的布局。请注意它们的主要特征和它们之间的关系。特别注意入口、出口、楼梯井和其他角色可以用来四处走动的特殊点。

了解故事 Know the Story
有些游戏没有太多的故事,角色只会被动接受你抛向他们的东西。但是,如果你花时间考虑对手是如何在这个小队的道路上出现的,他们在小队出现时所做的事情,以及他们对入侵的反应,即使是如此简单的冒险也会稍微好一点。
     其他游戏将角色放在一个展开的故事中。在运行这样的游戏之前,停下来考虑故事的开始、中间和结束。注意故事中的关键事件和转折点,并特别关注事件或事态发展,这些事件和发展会影响人物的决定或行动。考虑一下你将如何呈现这些转折点,这样你就可以创造一个流畅的叙事,随着小队的行动,自然而然地讲述出来。

认识对手 Know the Adversaries
想想你的角色必须面对的敌人和他们必须克服的其他障碍。想想这些对手是如何对待角色的。由于他们的听觉,视力或其他感官,生物和NPC通常可以在人物离他们一段距离时做出反应。这些敌人的反应取决于他们的天性、性情和智力,以及他们在现场的原因以及他们在小队抵达时的会做什么。
    智力水平低下的动物和其他生物通常只是因为它们生活在该地区或因为其他人将它们带到那里而存在;除非它们认为角色是某种威胁,否则他们往往不会太注意角色。许多动物宁愿逃跑而不是战斗,但胆怯的动物也会在走投无路时变得凶猛,而且有些动物具有高度的领土意识和侵略性。
    任何一种比普通动物更聪明的动物通常在行动之前尝试评估情况。很少有人只是坐在房间或小巷等着小队来攻击。他们会如何行动取决于他们拥有的武器和能力,以及他们所面临的威胁。
    有事物需要保卫的生物(财产、生活、家庭、名誉等等)可能会毫不犹豫地以某种方式对抗该小队。但这并不总是意味着立即进攻。想想这个生物是如何看待入侵者或访问者的。是好奇还是容易谈判?它认为这个群体是威胁还是机会?它制定了对付入侵者的计划吗?也要考虑这个生物有多了解它的基础情况,它愿意承担什么风险,以及它能多么迅速和准确地评估它的处境。
     并非所有的回应都基于战术考虑。该生物可能只想与新人聊天或者可能派其他人这样做。或者,它可能试图吓跑入侵者或者误导他们。一个根本无法从中获益的生物,只要能避免发生战斗,它很可能不会去战斗。
     你还应该想一想这个生物会投降或逃跑的原因。如果有其他可行的选项,很少有生物会战死。

了解规则 Know the Rules
你不需要关于探索者RPG规则的浩瀚学识才能运行一场高质量的游戏。但是,你需要对在游戏中经常出现的规则部分相当熟稔。这意味着决定先攻、生物的攻击与防御以及如何解决非战斗挑战例如技能检定(例如开锁或者恶人潜入了玩家营地)之类的规则。标记规则书以帮助您找到位置并没有什么坏处—— 一些自粘标签——可以证明是不可或缺的。
    同时注意任何使用了复杂,困难或不熟悉的游戏机制的角色能力,并花点时间研究它。对于小队可能遇到的任何生物,陷阱或险境同样如此。
    如果您无法弄清楚规则的某些方面,并且时间允许,可以考虑咨询另一位GM或paizo.com的messageboard,其中包含大量有用的信息和规则讨论。如果这些方法都不管用了,确定您希望相关规则如何运作并以这种方式使用它 - 只要你提前考虑这些决定,就有办法解决问题。

不要过度 Don’t Overdo It
记住你所做的准备,都是为了让游戏在桌上顺利运行。准备充分,这样你就可以快速处理你预期出现的情况,这样你就有时间处理那些意想不到的事情。但是不要把游戏编写得太过紧凑,以至于让玩家失去了自由感,或者让游戏结构会因为玩家在完成你期望时失败(或拒绝这么做)时就会碎裂。

准备些备用计划 Lay a Few Alternate Plans
军事圈里有个谚语:“没有任何作战计划在与敌人遭遇后还有效”。有时候玩家会朝着你没想到的方向前进,用只用几个骰子就击败你的主要反派,错过一个明显的线索,或者在一场关键的战斗中战败。你可以想一些突发事件来突然推动发展以使你的计划回到正轨。开始思考事情为何会偏离轨道。一些关键人物是否会影响您的情节?角色是否需要在成功之前学到一些东西?是否有一种危险,如果被忽视,有可能击败你的玩家团队?一旦你确定了关键的绊脚石,想一想在最坏的情况下,能修复伤害的合理方法。
    当然,有时你仍然无法为玩家的行动做万全准备。对于每个人来说,这通常是最有趣的,探索新故事并使用它轻轻地将游戏推回到原始轨道上。毫无例外地坚持准备好的情节会让玩家感到无能为力,成为GM的部分乐趣正是来自于感受玩家带来的惊讶。去吧。



引用
出版还是原创? Published or Homegrown?
选择公开出版的冒险可以是一项好投资。阅读这样的场景可以让您了解该如何构成冒险,那些挑战会适合你的团队的能力等级,以及什么样的奖励是比较合适的。这些主题在探索者核心手册里都有提及,但是并没有像这样将所有元素整合到一起。更重要的是,仔细观察其他人经历过的冒险经历可以为您提供构建自己冒险的新想法。当你经常的带团时,很容易陷入困境中,那像探索者冒险之路或者探索者模组这样的冒险就可以帮助你解决问题。
    同时,还有丰富的预设整理好的战役设定,包括Paizo自己的探索者战役设定。考虑从其中中挖掘概念来构筑自己的世界观,或者采用激发了你冒险灵感的地方。
    无论您拥有多少已出版的冒险或设定,您都可以自行决定是否使用它们。如果你能不时地从他们那里得到一个想法,那你这笔钱就花的很值得,但是在更大程度上使用它们可以让GM以最少的准备进行全面而复杂的战役。
引用
共同承担 Sharing the Load
就算你是GM,也不用事必躬亲。你可以将任意数量的工作分配给你的玩家们。
    书记(Bookkeeping):这涵盖了保持团队组织所需的所有小任务。您可能会要求一名玩家成为记录员,记录每个游戏中团队完成的内容。记录员可以记录团队的战利品和击败的敌人,在分配战利品的时候节省你的工作。
    规则知识(Rules Knowledge):如果你有一个有能力解释规则而且足够公正的玩家,请使用她作为资源。当你期望解决一个不熟悉的规则时,和这个玩家一起讨论它应该如何运作。当游戏中出现有关规则的争议时,咨询她的意见。也可以让她作为新人玩家的顾问,来让游戏保持流畅,通常对队伍也很有好处。
    环团战役(Round-Robin Campaigns):没人规定你每次都需要当GM。有时一支GM团体可以轮流负责带团,每个GM都会继续前一周的团,而其他的GM则作为玩家跑团。这需要大量的协调和专业的角色扮演(因为一些玩家已经提前知道情节线),但是有机会参加自己的战役并经常体验不同的GM风格,这可能非常有趣和有益。



一次性游戏 One-Shot Games
一次性游戏是一个用来填充一次聚会的单独故事。这些故事可能是“独立的”,与您运行的其他战役很少或没有关联,或者仅仅是你的主要角色的一次消遣,来给你额外的时间来完成下一个大型挑战。 Paizo的Pathfinder Society Scenarios专为此类情况而设计,可以从paizo.com下载。 请记住,这些故事中的角色可以是平时的那些玩家角色,类似雇佣兵的组织成员,或者就是只为这场游戏准备的全新角色——一次性游戏非常适合不同寻常的角色,而这类角色在长期游戏中可能会很失败或者变得无聊。

人物 Characters
除非您准备的是一个非常短的故事或非常长的游戏计划,否则请提前创建角色。在时间紧迫的情况下,您可以亲自创建人物,并允许你的玩家从中挑选。在这种情况下,你应该在需要的数量多做一些卡,以便没有人会感觉被挑剩下的东西卡住。 如果您决定让玩家创建自己的角色,请明确您允许的强度等级,装备和其他游戏细节,并保留审查和编辑角色以更好地适应队伍的权利。 您甚至可能希望与玩家一对一见面或让他们提前提交角色以供审核。

开始 Getting Started
以吸引玩家的方式介绍场景。 不要泄露任何秘密,但让玩家知道为什么他们的每个角色都参与其中_有好几种“冒险引子(adventure hooks)”可以让你选择,到底哪一个对于角色们最具吸引力。 你同样总是可以在队伍已经致力于进行冒险的时候开始游戏,或者面对会直接导向冒险的场景,以避免浪费任何游戏的时间。
    麦高芬(macguffin)的概念经常被证明是有用的。 麦高芬可以是推动你的情节向前发展的元素,但是一旦它达到目的就可以忽略。 你的麦高芬可能是一个谣言,一个朋友的使命或请 求,一个神秘的消息,一个藏宝图,或任何其他可以激发团队兴趣而不会泄露太多东西的东西。

总结 Wrapping Up
想好这只团队的行动怎么样,是否成功,是否会结束,并且准备好在最后一颗骰子也停止滚动的时候做一个总结。你的玩家们可能再也不会玩这些角色了,所以你可以使用在正常游戏中不太合适的非同寻常的奖赏或者结局。当然,当玩家和GM都觉得这个故事和这些角色实在太有趣以至于不忍心让他们退休时,很多一次性游戏后来变成了更大的冒险……



战役 Campaigns
战役提供的不仅仅是一系列的冒险而已。一个战役还为团队的活动提供背景和深度,使其成为更大世界的一部分。一个精心构建的战役也能为你提供故事的元素、地点、风格和冲突,作为您创造冒险时的创造力的跳板。战役可以提前完全勾画出来,例如分成6个部分的探索者冒险之路系列,这给了GM们所有冒险的内容以及运行一个完整战役需要的补充材料。它们也可以由GM提前一两次聚会在冒险中即兴创做出来。战役列表包含在本书后面,您可以使用它来规划和记录你的战役的所有相关详细信息。

优秀战役的要点 Essentials of Good Campaigns
关于准备一次性游戏的部分中的大多数建议也适用于战役 - 只是规模不同。 以下是一些需要考虑的因素。

设定和范围 Setting and Scope
您的战役世界为您的所有冒险活动提供了背景设定。花点时间考虑一下这片土地以及参游览这个地方的可能性 - 第6章提供了一些关于创造环境的具体主意。
    您的战役世界的实际范围也会影响游戏。您可以将所有冒险活动限制在一个国家或类似的地理区域,甚至是一个城镇或城市。 然而,你可以在如此狭窄的环境中运行的冒险类型将与你在整个大陆所能做的事情不同。 一个史诗般的,跨越世界的活动提供了无数种冒险场景,而本地化的活动提供了更亲密和强烈的感觉,人物是世界的一部分。

故事 Story
您的战役不一定需要有一个总体的故事情节,但拥有一个(或多个)连续的情节可以帮助您将您的冒险活动结合在一起,形成一个连续的叙事,并启发新的故事。
    不要过分强调这个元素。您的目标不是编写战役的脚本,而是解释事情发生的方式和原因。保持故事的整体性,着眼于你的角色可以注意到的细节,并且他们的行为改变可能会改变一些。 选择一些可以慢慢展开的故事,这样即使你的玩家角色不积极参与,故事也可以继续进行下去。考虑玩家角色如何塑造或重定向故事,还要确定如果他们没有参与其中会发生什么。

有影响力的人物 Movers and Shakers
Decide who’s who in your world。这不仅包括掌握权力的众生,还包括参与推动战役的每个人。 如果您为战役制作了故事,请确定主要主题背后的实体。问问自己谁在幕后操纵,谁在每一次的变化和转折中有所得失。
    并非你世界上每一个重要人物都需要极具影响力。 每个地方的人都有一些令人难忘的人物,所以将其中一些放你的PC所在的社区附近。 其中一些可能成为角色的宝贵资产,为他们提供信息,向更有影响力的人介绍,或在需要时提供保护。 其他人可能只是偶尔提供一些喜剧效果。

战役的结局 Campaign Endings
许多战役会无限期地进行下去,直到该组织由于生活和优先事项的改变而解散。这没什么不对的,只要进行战役并参与进来,就不要它让成为杂事。尽管如此,当一场游戏自然结束时,你和你的玩家应该带着一种完满的感觉离开,这是令人愉快的。
    也许你会计划一场以结局结束的战役——如果你写了一个故事,这是相当容易的任务。或者当玩家的兴趣(或者你自己的兴趣)开始下降时,你可能决定结束游戏。无论哪种情况,考虑一下战役中的哪些元素引起了团队的共鸣。也许他们喜欢上了某个特定的城镇或人物。也许他们真的鄙视某些恶棍,或者有强烈的欲望去获得某种物品。精心设计你的结尾,这样事情就会有一个好的结局,主要的问题解决了,剩下的问题也解决了。通常情况下,创建一个结局是很有趣的,它会列出每个角色的职业生涯和退休经历,并在幸存角色的晚年展望游戏世界的总体状态。

即兴表演 Winging it
准备是很重要,但有时你只是想玩玩。出版的冒险里有所有需要的东西,但是那些需要提前进行一些阅读。你想要真正的即兴发挥,只需要一些笔记和一些骰子,试着浏览一下你可以使用的一些已经完成冒险经历的数据表——至少,你需要知道一些东西,比如生命值,AC和豁免——或者在一本怪物书中标记一些生物。你觉得需要多少,就画多少;这可能是一场完整的冒险,也可能只是第一幕。当你需要几分钟的时间来盘算下一次遭遇的时候,可以抛出一个需要团队讨论的重大决定,而且要记住,和一个古怪的NPC玩角色扮演游戏可以提供广泛的娱乐,而不需要任何数学计算。有关紧急游戏准备的更多提示,请参见第48-49页。以及当事情很麻烦的时候——“请骰先攻!”

劇透 -   :
Preparing to Run a Game
Great Game Masters make running a game look easy, weaving memorable characters, breathless action, and vivid descriptions into unforgettable tapestries of fantasy. Players in a well-run game have a sense of danger (and a sense of accomplishment in overcoming it), plus a general feeling of spontaneity as events unfold and the characters rise to meet new challenges.
Such magical experiences require plenty of preparation, even a sense of spontaneity—it’s tough to seem spontaneous when you’re shuff ling though notes.

thinGs to hAve At the tAble
Supplies and materials on the list that follows keep the game from derailing as you fumble for what you need.

    Rulebooks and Other Game Materials: You need copies of whatever rules are in use, plus a copy of any supplement or expansion that deals with player character abilities. If it’s a book that’s referenced frequently by players, it’s often appropriate to ask players to provide their own copies.
    Dice: An inadequate supply of dice can slow a game to a crawl. At minimum, make sure each player has a full set of the dice most commonly used in the game: d4, d6, d8, d10, d12, and d20.
    Writing Materials: Everyone needs a pencil and some notepaper. In addition, it’s a good idea to keep a supply of blank character sheets handy.
    Miniatures: Many GMs use miniatures to keep track of the action. These work best on a scale map of the adventure scene, typically a gridded battlemat suitable for use with erasable markers (such as GameMastery Flip-Mats), though the right computer equipment can project or print maps to scale.
    Props and Associated Supplies: Props and player handouts, such as sketches of important items, maps for player reference, and written notes, can speed play and help hold the players’ interest.

seven essentiAls for Good PrePArAtion
Exactly what kind of preparation is needed varies from game to game. If you follow this checklist, however, you’ll be ready for just about anything.

Know the Characters and Players
Sit down with all the character sheets and look them over carefully. Consider what each character can do in the game—major powers, secondary powers, special abilities, and inherent traits. This helps you anticipate what your players might do in any given situation.
   Pay special attention to powers that work automatically or passively—for example, an ability to detect impending danger or notice concealed doors. It falls to you to make
sure such abilities work when and how they should.
    Knowing your players can prove as important as knowing their characters. Many players develop favorite tricks and stunts with their characters’ powers, or well-ingrained misconceptions about what their characters can or cannot do. Knowing these quirks can help you keep the players engaged and challenged and can def lect problems before the dice hit the table.

Know the Scene
Get familiar with the scene where the action will occur. If you’re running a published adventure, read through it carefully. Not only should you know the answers to basic questions (“How high is the ceiling here?”), but you should also be able to convey sensory details.
    Next, take a moment to get familiar with each adventure site’s layout. Note the major features and where they lie in relation to each other. Pay special attention to entrances, exits, stairwells, and other features that the characters will use to move around.

Know the Story
Some games don’t have much story—the characters simply endure whatever you decide to throw at them. But even such straightforward adventures will run a little better if
you take time to consider how the adversaries came to be in the party’s way, what they’re doing when the party appears, and how they might react to intrusion.
    Other games place the characters within an unfolding story. Before running such a game, stop to consider the story’s beginning, middle, and end. Note the key events and turning points in the tale, and pay special attention to events and developments that turn on character decisions or actions. Consider how you will present those turning points so that you can create a seamless narrative that flows naturally from the party’s actions.

Know the Adversaries
Think about the foes your characters must face and any other obstacles they must overcome. Consider how those adversaries will act toward the characters.
    Creatures and NPCs can often react to characters when they’re still some distance away, thanks to their hearing, sight, or other senses. How these foes respond depends on their nature, temperament, and intelligence, as well as why they’re on the scene and what they’re doing when the party arrives.
    Animals and creatures with a similar level of intelligence are usually present simply because they live in the area or because someone else has brought them there; they often don’t pay much heed to the characters unless they perceive them to be some kind of threat. Many animals would rather f lee than fight, but even a timid animal can become ferocious when cornered, and some are highly territorial and aggressive.
    Any creature smarter than a common animal generally tries to assess the situation before acting. Very few simply sit in rooms or lairs waiting for the party to come and attack. What they do depends on the weaponry and powers they have available, and what they have at stake.
    Creatures that have something to defend (property, livelihood, family, reputation, and so on) likely won’t hesitate to confront the party in some fashion. That doesn’t always mean an immediate attack. Consider how the creature thinks of intruders or visitors. Is it curious or prone to negotiation? Does it think of the group as a threat or an opportunity? Has it made plans for dealing with intruders? Also think about how well the creature knows its ground, what risks it’s willing to take, and how quickly and accurately it can assess its situation.
    Not all responses need to be tactical. The creature might just want to chat with the newcomers or might send someone else to do so. Alternatively, it might try to scare away intruders or perhaps misdirect them. A creature with nothing to gain probably won’t fight at all if it can avoid doing so.
    You should also think about what might make the creature surrender or f lee. Few creatures fight to the death if there’s an alternative available.

Know the Rules
You don’t need encyclopedic knowledge of the Pathfinder RPG rules set to run a quality game. You do, however, need to be comfortable with those parts of the rules that come up frequently in play. This means the rules for determining initiative, how creatures attack and defend, and how to resolve noncombat challenges like skill checks (such as picking a lock or noticing bad guys sneaking up on the party’s camp). It doesn’t hurt to mark your rulebooks to help you find your way around—a few self-adhesive tabs
can prove indispensable.
     Also be on the lookout for any character ability that uses a complex, difficult, or unfamiliar game mechanic and take a moment to study it. Do likewise for any creatures, traps, or hazards the party might encounter.
    If you can’t quite figure out some aspect of the rules, and time permits, consult another Game Master, or the messageboards at paizo.com, which contain a wealth of helpful information and rules discussions. If all else fails, decide how you want the rule in question to work and use it that way—such decisions have a way of working out if you think them through ahead of time.

Don’t Overdo It
Remember that you’re preparing so that things proceed smoothly at the game table. Over-preparation can ruin that. Instead, prepare just enough so that you can quickly
deal with situations that you expect to arise, and so that you can handle the unexpected. Don’t script your game so tightly that the players lose their sense of freedom or that your game’s whole structure falls apart if your players fail (or refuse) to accomplish what you expect them to.
    Likewise, don’t create so many notes that you can’t keep them organized. One page for each major encounter, event, or personality is generally plenty, and often less will do.

Lay a Few Alternate Plans
There’s an adage in military circles: no plan survives contact with the enemy. Sometimes players head off in directions you didn’t anticipate, defeat your primary villain with a few rolls, miss an obvious clue, or lose a key battle. You can take such developments in stride by considering a few contingencies that can set your plot back on track. Start by thinking about how things might go astray. Does some key individual drive your plot? Do the characters need to learn something before they can succeed? Is there a danger that, if overlooked, can defeat your party? Once you’ve identified the key stumbling blocks, think of plausible ways to repair the damage if the worst happens.
    Of course, sometimes you still won’t be able to prepare for player actions. When things go astray, it’s generally the most fun for everyone to play along, exploring the
new story and using it to gently nudge the game back onto the original track. Sticking without exception to a prepared plot makes players feel powerless, and part of the fun of being a GM is being surprised by your players. Go with it.


Published or Homegrown?
Published adventures can be a great investment. Reading through such a scenario can give you an idea of how an adventure is put together, what challenges are suitable for your group’s power level, and what sorts of rewards are appropriate. The Pathfinder RPG Core Rulebook deals with these subjects, but there’s nothing like seeing all the elements put together. More importantly, a close look at adventures someone else has thought through can give you new ideas for constructing your own. It’s easy to fall into a rut, especially when you’re running games regularly, and adventures like Paizo’s Pathfinder Adventure Paths and Pathfinder Modules can help dig you out.
    Similarly, there’s a wealth of prepackaged campaign settings available, including Paizo’s own Pathfinder
Campaign Setting. Consider mining concepts from them for your own world, or adopting locations from them that inspire adventure concepts.
    No matter how many published adventures or settings you own, it’s up to you to decide whether you’ll use them. If you merely lift an idea from them now and then, you’re still getting your money’s worth, but using them to a greater extent allows GMs to run sweeping, intricate campaigns with minimal preparation.

Sharing the Load
Even though you’re the GM, you don’t have to do everything yourself. You can pass along any number of tasks to your players.
    Bookkeeping: This covers all the little tasks necessary to keep your group organized. You might ask one player to be the recorder, keeping notes on what the group accomplishes in each game. The recorder can keep tallies of party loot and foes defeated, saving you effort when it’s time to divide the spoils. You can also ask this player to note key pieces of information the PCs discover, names of important people they meet, and places they go. These notes can help your group get back up to speed when they return after a break.
    Rules Knowledge: If you have a fair-minded player with a talent for explaining the rules, use her as a resource. When you expect to tackle an unfamiliar rule, discuss how it works with this player. When disputes about the rules arise during a game, get her opinion. It’s also frequently helpful to team her up with rookie players as an advisor, keeping the game moving.
    Round-Robin Campaigns: No one says you have to GM every session. Sometimes a team of GMs can rotate the responsibility of running the game, each GM taking up
the game where the previous one left off each week, while the other GMs play. This requires significant coordination, and expert roleplaying (as some players already know the plotlines), but the chance to play in your own campaign and regularly experience different GM styles can be extremely entertaining and rewarding.

one-shot GAmes
A one-shot game is a scenario intended to last for a single play session. These scenarios might be “standalone,” with little or no connection to other campaigns you run, or merely a diversion for your regular characters to give you extra time to put together the next major challenge. Paizo’s Pathfinder Society Scenarios are designed for just such situations, and can be downloaded from paizo.com. Keep in mind that the characters in these sessions can be the usual PCs, affiliates such as hirelings, or totally new characters intended only for a single game—one-shots are often perfect for unusual character ideas that might fail or grow stale in a longer game.

Characters
Unless you’ve got a very short scenario to run or a very long game session planned, create new characters ahead of time. In a time crunch, you might create them yourself
and allow your players to pick from the bunch. In this case, you should make a few more than you’ll need so that nobody feels stuck with the leftovers. If you decide to have players create their own characters, be clear about the power level, gear, and other game details you’ll allow and reserve the right to review and edit characters to better fit the group. You might even want to meet up with players one-on-one or have them submit characters early for review.

Getting Started
Introduce the scenario in a way that engages the players. Don’t give away any secrets, but let the players know why each of their characters is getting involved—having several “adventure hooks” allows you to pick which one would be most compelling for a given character. You can also always start the action with the party already committed to the adventure or facing a situation that leads in to the rest of the scenario, so as not to waste any playing time.
    The concept of the macguffin often proves useful here. A macguffin is some element that drives your plot forward, but that you can ignore once it’s served its purpose. Your macguffin might be a rumor, a mission or request from a friend, a cryptic message, a treasure map, or anything else that piques the group’s interest without giving away too much.

Wrapping Up
Consider how the party’s activities, successful or not, might end, and be ready to sum up when the last die stops rolling. Because your players might never play these characters again, you can plan unusual rewards or endings that would be awkward in a regular campaign. Of course, more than one adventure that began as a one-shot has stretched into a campaign when both players and GMs found the plots and characters too much fun to retire...

cAmPAiGns
A campaign offers something more than a series of adventures. A campaign gives context and depth to a group’s activities, making them part of a larger world. A properly constructed campaign also provides you with story elements, locations, personalities, and conflicts that serve as springboards for your creativity as you create adventures. Campaigns can be completely plotted out ahead of time, such as the 6-part Pathfinder Adventure Path series, which give GMs all the adventures and supplemental material they need to run a complete campaign, or they can be crafted on the fly, with GMs stringing adventures together just a session or two in advance. A Campaign Sheet is included in the back of this book, which you can use to plan and record all of the relevant details of your campaigns.

essentiAls of Good cAmPAiGns
Most advice in the section on preparing for a one-shot game applies to campaigns as well—only the scale is different. Below are a few elements to consider.

Setting and Scope
Your campaign world provides the backdrop for all your adventures. Take some time to consider the lay of the land and what it might be like to visit the place—Chapter 6 provides some specific ideas on creating a setting.
    The sheer scope of your campaign world can also affect play. You can confine all your adventures to a single country or similar geographic area, or even to a single town or city. The kinds of adventures you can run in such a confined setting, however, will be different than what you can do with a whole continent.
An epic, world-spanning campaign offers an endless variety of adventure sites, while a localized campaign offers a more intimate feel and a strong sense that the characters are part of the world.

Story
Your campaign need not have an overarching storyline, but having one (or more) continuing plots can help tie your adventures together into a continuous narrative, and inspire new ones.
    Don’t overdo this element. Your goal isn’t to script your campaign, but rather to explain how and why things happen. Keep the story general, with an eye toward details your characters can notice and perhaps change through their actions. Choose something that can unfold slowly so that the story can move along even when your player characters aren’t actively involved in it. Consider how the player characters might shape or redirect the story, but also establish what happens if they don’t get involved.

Movers and Shakers
Decide who’s who in your world. This includes not only the beings that hold the reins of power, but also everyone who’s involved in driving the campaign forward. If you’ve laid out a story for your campaign, identify the entities behind the major threads. Ask yourself who’s pulling the strings and who stands to gain and lose with each twist and turn.
    Not every important character in your world need be terribly inf luential. Every locale with people has a few memorable characters, so sprinkle the neighborhood where your PCs live with a few of those. Some of these might become valuable assets to the characters, providing them with information, introductions to more inf luential people, or protection in times of need. Others might simply offer the occasional bit of comic relief.

Campaign Endings
Many campaigns run on indefinitely until the group breaks up due to changing lives and priorities. There’s nothing wrong with that, so long as running the campaign—and playing in it—don’t become chores. Still, it’s pleasant when a campaign comes to a natural end that allows you and your players to leave with a sense of completion.
    You might plan a campaign with an ending in mind—a fairly easy task if you’ve laid out a story. Or you might decide to end the campaign when player interest (or your own) starts to f lag. In either case, consider what elements in the campaign have struck a chord with the group. Perhaps they’ve grown fond of a particular town or character. Perhaps they really despise some villain or have a burning desire to obtain a certain item. Craft your ending so things end on a high note, with main conf licts resolved and the loose ends tied up. It’s often fun to create an epilogue that lays out each character’s later career and retirement and looks ahead to the general state of your game world during the surviving characters’ sunset years.

WinGinG it
Preparation is great, but sometimes you just want to play. Published adventures are perfect for this, but even those require a bit of reading ahead of time. If you want to truly wing it, with nothing more than a few notes and some dice, try f lipping through some completed adventures for stat blocks you can use—at the very least, you’re going to need to know things like hit points, AC, and saves—or tag some creatures in a monster book. Sketch out as much of the plot as you feel you need; it could be a whole adventure, or just the first scene. Consider throwing in a big decision requiring party deliberation whenever you need a minute to figure out the next encounter, andremember that a fun roleplaying encounter with an oddball NPC can provide extensive entertainment without any math involved. For more tips on emergency game prep, see pages 48–49. And when in doubt—roll initiative!
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Creating a Campaign Guide
« 回帖 #5 于: 2018-07-23, 周一 23:17:21 »
创建战役指南 Creating a Campaign Guide
在电视剧和类似的正在进行的媒体中,有“故事圣经”的概念,这是一种文件,阐述了关于电视剧的角色、故事和背景的基本信息,以便后来的作家能够创作出具有一定一致性的剧本。类似地,GM可以创建一个战役指南来帮助跟踪他们的创作,并为玩家提供一个正在进行的战役的概述。这样一来,玩家就会知道自己想要的是什么,并能够创造和扮演自己的角色,使其最适合整个设定。一个战役指南最重要的功能是让你的玩家兴奋地钻研设定和玩游戏!在准备战役指南时,请考虑以下几点。

系统 System
这里默认假设您的游戏将使用探索者核心规则书中的规则。许多GM会自定义核心规则以适应他们的偏好、游戏风格和玩家,而战役指南正是设置这些自定义规则的完美场所,这样玩家就知道该期望什么,以及在战役中什么定制好的或例外的内容。您还需要为游戏制定角色创建指南,并阐明哪些东西是你期望的,哪些是禁止的,以便玩家在设计角色的过程中了解自己的选择。
     例如,您可能会禁止某个特定的术士血统或其他角色选项,因为它不适合这个设定,而且并不存在(至少据人们所知)。另一方面,你可以设定一个规则,即个人电脑不能成为刺客,也不能选择邪恶作为他们的阵营,因为你宁愿不去处理这些可能性带来的复杂性。这并不一定意味着刺客和邪恶阵营在故事中不存在,但他们不是玩家的可选项。

设定 Setting
战役指南的主要内容是对背景的描述:战役在何时何地进行,特别是“基础状态”或人物应该熟悉的现状。有效地做到这一点可能比听起来要困难得多,所以遵循下面的指导方针来保持这一点的趣味性和准确性。
    概括地说(Broad Strokes):你不需要给你的玩家一份200页的文件,详细描述战役世界的每一个角落以及历史上的每一个重大事件。即使你有这样的文档,最好还是用亮点来吸引新玩家。把重点放在活动开始的地方,如果你要描述世界上的其他地方,那就概括地描述一下。随着活动的进展,您总是可以填写更多的信息。
    专注于当下(Focus on the Present):历史背景是好的,特别是那些对当下产生影响的历史事件,但专注于让玩家保持游戏开始时的状态。不要过多关注无关的历史细节;如果对几百年前某一场战争的描述对今天没有影响,那就总结一下或者干脆删掉。
    细节化(Enliven with Detail):试着给玩家一些日常生活的基本细节。人们吃什么?他们穿什么样的衣服?他们做什么消遣?典型的一天、一周或一年是什么样的?什么人会使用什么样的表达方式?这些细节形成了玩家可以用来在游戏中进入角色的有价值的引子(Hook)。

故事 Story
根据你想要带的故事类型,你可能很愿意或者不愿意在你的战役指南中包含故事的内容。你可能会发现让玩家了解你想要讲述的故事类型是很有帮助的,这样他们就可以帮助他们理解角色的概念。这是一个史诗般的幻想,当地的英雄们发现了对整个世界的可怕威胁;还是一个公会和贵族家族专注于为了统治城市进行的斗争?
     一些GM更倾向于自由形式的战役,即让玩家从一个背景和角色的背景故事开始,然后随着游戏的进展而展开其他内容。故事由玩家角色的行为和骰子决定的结果写就。另一些GM在脑海中有一个特定类型的故事,并试图巧妙地引导玩家,让他们在故事的范围内拥有广泛的选择,但同时又将其集中在特定的游戏领域;例如,一名玩家想让他的角色在一场关于公会交战的战役中去探索一些失落的废墟,他可能会在废墟中发现一些与主要冲突有关的东西,并将其带回故事中。

声音 Voice
声音是指南向读者传达内容的方式。它包括诸如视角、腔调和风格等选择,这些选择不仅能影响内容的传达方式,还能为玩家提供额外的信息和洞察力。声音的两种主要方法是“内在的”或主观的声音,或“外在的”或客观的声音。
     主观声音(Subjective Voice):这种方法以虚构的文档或对话的形式呈现战役指南的部分或全部内容,例如游记、期刊、信件或人们在背景中所写的学术著作。主观声音文档具有浓郁的设置特色,呈现出强烈的视角,为读者打开了一扇通向世界的虚构窗口。另一方面,它们可能是有偏见的或不完整的,而且它们在相同的空间内提供的信息往往比用客观的声音编写的文档要少。这些品质可能是好东西,特别是如果你想让玩家在一开始就获得一些带有偏见或不准确的信息,但制作这样的文档通常需要更多的工作。通过向玩家介绍文档的虚构作者以及他们所讨论的主题,主观声音呈现可以起到双重作用。例如,如果团队可能与某个特定的圣贤(certain sage)或贵族在背景中互动,或许战役指南的一部分可以用这个人物的口吻来写。这样,当游戏开始时,玩家已经有了“了解”该角色的感觉。
    客观声音(Objective Voice):这种风格的指引是从GM的角度来写的,存在于场景之外。这种方法可以在战役指南材料中提供更广阔的视角,在其中您可以提供与现代示例的比较,并讨论主观作者可能不知道的事情。客观声音往往更简洁,因为你可以准确地说出你的意思,而不需要用一个背景人物会使用的词语来表达。这使您可以在更少的空间内提供更多的信息,如果它们很重要的话,还可以节省时间和精力。
    组合声音(Combining Voices):当然,你也可以在你的指南中混合主观和客观的声音。您可以使用主要客观的声音来提供大部分信息,然后将信息放入带有主观声音的片段或例子的下文中,例如来自于背景人物的引用,或者甚至更复杂的事情,如草图。

出品 Publication
一旦战役指南文件准备好了,你就需要考虑如何将它呈现在玩家面前。现代媒体和桌面出版(指用台式计算机和激光打印机进行出版业务)为分享战役指南创造了广泛的选择。

打印 Print
第一个也是最简单的选择是打印战役指南并给每个玩家一份。它可以在家里打印出来,也可以在复印店专业制作。更大的战役指南可能放在活页夹或报告封套中,打印商店提供各种装订选项,从方形胶带装订到塑料螺旋装订(带或不带卡纸或塑料封套)。这些选项为您的指南增加了持久性和质量,使玩家可以随着时间的推移轻松地使用和参考,但可能会使您不太倾向于在前进过程中进行更改。

电子版 Electronic
你也可以以电子文档的形式发布战役指南,可以通过电子邮件或在线共享的方式轻松共享。使用笔记本电脑或手持设备,玩家仍然可以在游戏中引用这些文档。另一个主要的电子选项是将您的战役指南作为网页或网站发布。Web页面设计程序使这一点即使对于非程序员也相当简单,而且有许多廉价的Web托管服务。玩家可以从任何有网络连接的地方访问基于网页的活动指南,可以保存或打印页面供自己参考,甚至可以主动编辑指南(如果GM允许的话)。除非网站是安全的,否则网上公布也会将你的战役指南公开给任何想看它的人,让其他GM从你的想法中受益。
    即使你为你的玩家出版了你的战役指南,你也可能想要有一个电子版本作为备份,进一步的补充,以及方便参考,特别是如果你想让指南公开可用。

版权 Copyrights
大多数已发布的RPG产品都受版权保护,因此您应该注意是否在印刷没有授权的部分,注意不要违反法律。 Paizo制定了社区使用政策(paizo.com/communityuse),说明如何你的战役指南中安全地使用我们的一些受版权保护的资料。

其他媒体 Other Media
近年来,GM利用桌面(desktop)和在线媒体创造了向玩家提供信息的其他方式。如果你有音乐天赋,用定制的主题音乐开始每一节课是让玩家进入正确心态的有效方法。您还可以为战役制作音频播客,甚至可以更进一步,使用视频剪辑制作“战役预告片”,就像电影预告片一样,然后您可以在播放器中分发或在线分享。这不需要涉及很多原创视频;您可以使用静止图像和艺术作品,通过平移或缩放等效果为它们提供动作,并在图像之间进行不同的溶解和过渡。
« 上次编辑: 2019-03-09, 周六 10:56:20 由 丞相 »
女王的杂技团
丞相就是个搞翻译的,懂个屁的跑团

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Re: 【GMG】第一章:开始(Chapter 1: Getting Started)
« 回帖 #6 于: 2018-07-23, 周一 23:17:49 »
这是一份可能会完成的,经过排版装饰的机翻

有些内容读起来似乎平淡无奇,但是真的遇到了才知道是句句忠告。回首往昔,唏嘘不已。
« 上次编辑: 2018-07-24, 周二 22:47:57 由 丞相 »
女王的杂技团
丞相就是个搞翻译的,懂个屁的跑团

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Re: 【GMG】第一章:开始(Chapter 1: Getting Started)
« 回帖 #7 于: 2018-07-31, 周二 16:22:16 »
引用
戰役(Campaign):故事的集合,有超量龐大的敘述交織而成。它可能是一系列已出版的冒險故事,一系列自制的材料,或者是設計成系列的冒險之路。廣告系列可能有也可能沒有明確或預定義的終點。

戰役
雅各之塔(Jacob's Tower) 個人翻譯的Pathfinder RPG非官方長篇系列冒險模組,一系列13個模組共17萬字,每個模組皆可獨立抽出使用。(已出版,商品頁面) 全彩地圖素材包
[PF]魔戰士變體大全
Pathfinder v1.9Pathfinder RPG的規則資源合集電子書,絕讚好評廢貓中。

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Re: 【GMG】第一章:开始(Chapter 1: Getting Started)
« 回帖 #8 于: 2019-03-16, 周六 13:31:34 »
全部翻译完毕。
怎么说呢,真的开了几次团以后,感觉虽然算不上字字珠玑(毕竟明里暗里都在推销自己的书),但是确实有无数非常非常宝贵的建议,藏在一大堆废话中。如果是开面团,就可以收获双倍的建议。

最典型的,比如说:“请骰先攻!”
女王的杂技团
丞相就是个搞翻译的,懂个屁的跑团

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Re: 【GMG】第一章:开始(Chapter 1: Getting Started)
« 回帖 #9 于: 2019-03-16, 周六 22:08:44 »
丞相强无敌。这东西很好
开完一个ap 1/1

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Re: 【GMG】第一章:开始(Chapter 1: Getting Started)
« 回帖 #10 于: 2019-03-16, 周六 22:12:30 »
修正表达。
更频繁的游戏比较罕见,而且通常是不可持续的,就像两个月以上的游戏一样
更频繁的游戏比较罕见,而且通常是不可持续的。间隔时间长达两个月以上的游戏也同样无法持续,因为......
开完一个ap 1/1

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Re: 【GMG】第一章:开始(Chapter 1: Getting Started)
« 回帖 #11 于: 2019-03-21, 周四 16:45:41 »
丞相越来越厉害了
成就更新
嘴炮侠诗人 0/1 圣言诗人 1/1  召唤师0/1 双人格炼金1/1 军人1/1
运用头脑的法师0/1 无所谓的真名师1/1 轰轰轰的战法师 0/1 远程投掷重剑的战刃0/1 六脉神剑一样的魂弓0/1 我就是人形光环(划水)的元戎 1/1 老实刚正传统的核心矮人重甲战士1/1 八百里开外射爆boss的弓箭手0/1 神奥双修的滥强0/1 双持巨剑0/1 创生圣言的真名师0/1 法爷0/1 欧拉欧拉欧拉的武僧1/1 贫穷+和平誓言0/1 光伟正的帕帕丁0/1  贫穷武僧1/1 无限领域制1/1
密宗真言画皮1/1

自己开团 2/5
被dm说伤害太高 1/1
被dm说太弱 5/1
尝试变形 1/1
尝试灵能 1/1