作者 主题: VV的读书笔记  (阅读 10348 次)

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离线 Victor

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Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #30 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:10:50 »
机翻第十三弹


NOV.
1979
#31
“. . . imagine a game based on the exploits of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle ’ s magnificent SherlockHolmes . Which of the participants wouldn’t wish for the role of the great detective? . . . what would the participants do if Holmes were slain? Or merely made a fool of”
”···想象一下,根据阿瑟·柯南·道尔爵士华丽的夏洛克福尔摩斯的故事改编的游戏。哪个参与者不希望扮演大侦探的角色?。如果福尔摩斯被杀,参与者会怎么做?或者只是做了一个傻瓜“
From issue #31 November 1979

Heroic fantasy adventure novels relate a story for the reader’s leisure enjoyment. Heroic fantasy adventure games provide a vehicle for the user's creation and development of epic tales through the medium of play. This simple difference is too often overlooked.
In the former case, the reader passively relates to what the author has written, hopefully identifying with one or the other of the novel’s leading characters, thus becoming immersed in the work and accepting it as real for the time.
Games, however, involve participants actively, and in the instance of fantasy adventure games, the player must create and develop a game persona which becomes the sole vehicle through which the individual can relate to the work.
Again, in the novel, the entire advantage related is a matter of fact which the reader will discover by perusal of the story from beginning to conclusion, without benefit of input. In contrast, the adventure game has only a vaguely fixed starting point, and the participant must, in effect, have a hand in authoring an unknown number of chapters in an epic work of heroic fantasy.
A novel has an entirely different goal than does a game, although both are forms of entertainment. The novel carries the reader from start to finish, white the game must be carried by the players.
An heroic fantasy adventure story should be so complete as to offer little within its content for reader creativity, or else it is an unfinished tale. This is not to say that the reader cannot become involved in the telling, that there is no rapport between writer and reader,or even that the whole milieu produced by the work isn’t vividly alive in the reader's mind. It simply is to point out that the author has conceived a fantasy, placed it in black and white before the reader, and invited him or her to share it.
A fantasy adventure game should offer little else but the possibility of imaginative input from the participant, for the aim of any game is to involve the participants in active play, while heroic fantasy adventure dictates imagination, creativity, and more.
The obvious corollary to this — and one evidently missed by many players, designers, and even publishers — is that a truly excellent novel provides an inversely proportionate amount of good material for a game. The greater the detail and believability of the fantasy, the less room for creativity, speculation, or even alteration.
Consider J.R.R. Tolkien’s “Ring Trilogy” for a moment. This is certainly a masterwork in heroic fantasy—with emphasis on fantasy. Its detail is vast. Readers readily identify with the protagonists, whether hobbit, human, or elf. Despite the fact that the whole tale seems to vouch for the reliability of the plain and simple “little guy” in doing a dirty job right, despite the fact that these books could very well deal allegorically with the struggle of the Allies vs. the Axis in WWII, despite the fact that the looming menace of the Tyrannical Evil simply blows away into nothing in the end, millions of readers find it the epitome of the perfect heroic fantasy adventure.
There are no divine powers to intervene on behalf of a humanity faced by ineffable evil. The demi-god being, Tom Bombadil, is written out of the tale because his intervention would have obviated the need for the bulk of the remaining work. The wizards are basically mysterious and rather impotent figures who offer cryptic advice, occasionally do something useful, but by and large are offstage doing “important business" or “wicked plotting."
Thus, the backbone of the whole is the struggles of a handful of hobbits, elves, humans, and dwarves against a backdrop of human armies and hordes of evil ores. Irrespective of its merits as a literary classic (and there is no denying that it is a beautifully written tale), the "Ring Trilogy” is quite unsatisfactory as a setting for a fantasy adventure game.
If the basis for such a game is drawn straight from the three novels, then there is no real game at all — merely an endless repetition, with a few possible variations, of the “Fellowship” defeating Sauron et al. As soon as the potential for evil to triumph is postulated by the game, several problems arise: First, most dedicated readers, identifying with the heroic elements of the work, do not desire to play the despised forces of Saruman or Sauron. The greater chance to win that evil has, the greater the overall antipathy for playing the game at all. Tolkien purists will also object to a distortion of the story.
Finally, even if the whole is carefully balanced, the best one can come up with is a series of variations on the “Ring Trilogy," whether the re-enactment is a role- playing game or a board game. The roles are cast by Tolkien, the world is structured according to his wants and desires. The more the game is put into this framework, the less of J.R.R.T. the participants will discover.
英雄幻想冒险小说讲述了一个故事,为读者的休闲享受。英雄奇幻冒险游戏为用户创造和发展史诗故事提供了媒介。这种简单的区别常常被忽略。
在前一种情况下,读者被动地与作者所写的内容有关,希望能够认同小说中主人公的一个或另一个,从而沉浸在作品中,并接受它为真实的时间。
游戏,然而,参与者积极参与,在幻想冒险游戏的实例中,玩家必须创造和发展一个游戏角色,它成为个人与工作相关的唯一媒介。
再一次,在小说中,所有的利益相关都是一个事实,读者会从开始到结束的过程中发现,没有任何输入的好处。与此相反,冒险游戏只有一个模糊的固定起点,参与者必须在英雄幻想的史诗作品中,参与创作未知数量的章节。
小说的目的完全不同于游戏,虽然两者都是娱乐形式。小说将读者从开始到终点,白色的游戏必须由玩家来进行。
一个英雄的奇幻冒险故事应该是如此完整,在它的内容中几乎没有提供给读者的创造力,否则它就是一个未完成的故事。这并不是说读者不能参与到讲述中,作者和读者之间没有融洽的关系,或者甚至是作品所产生的整个环境在读者的头脑中都不生动。简单地说,作者构思了一个幻想,把它放在读者面前白纸黑字,并邀请他或她来分享。
一场奇幻冒险游戏除了可以提供参与者的想象输入之外,几乎不应该提供其他的东西,因为任何游戏的目的都是让参与者参与到积极的游戏中来,而英雄幻想冒险则需要想象力、创造力等等。
显而易见的推论是,许多玩家、设计师、甚至出版商都忽略了这一点,那就是一部真正优秀的小说为一场游戏提供了与之成反比的好素材。幻想的细节和可信度越高,创造力、推测、甚至改变的空间就越小。
考虑一下J.R.R.托尔金的“指环三部曲”。这当然是一个英雄幻想的杰作——强调幻想。它的细节是巨大的。读者很容易认同主人公,无论是霍比特人、人类还是精灵。尽管整个故事似乎证明了平凡而简单的“小人物”在做一件肮脏的工作时的可靠性,尽管事实是这些书可以很好地与二战中盟军与轴心国的斗争进行寓言式的斗争,尽管事实上,暴君的邪恶的威胁最终化为乌有,数以百万计的读者认为它是完美英雄幻想冒险的缩影。
没有神圣的力量能够代表一个人类面对不可言喻的邪恶。《神的存在》,汤姆庞巴迪,被写在这个故事里,因为他的介入将会消除剩下的大部分工作的需要。巫师们基本上是神秘的,而非有效的人提供神秘的建议,偶尔做些有用的事,但总的来说,他们是在做"重要生意"或者"邪恶阴谋"
因此,整体的脊梁是少数霍比特人、精灵、人类和矮人在人类军队和成群的邪恶矿石的背景下的挣扎。不论其作为文学经典的优点(无可否认,它是一个写得很好的故事),《指环三部曲》作为一款奇幻冒险游戏的背景是相当不令人满意的。
如果这类游戏的基础是直接从这三部小说中画出来的,那么就没有真正的游戏了——只不过是一种无休止的重复,有一些可能的变化,会打败索伦等人。一旦邪恶的可能性被游戏所模仿,就会出现几个问题:首先,最忠实的读者,认同作品中的英雄元素,不愿意扮演萨鲁曼或索伦的被轻视的力量。赢得这场恶战的机会越大,对游戏的整体反感就越大。托尔金的纯粹主义者也会反对对故事的歪曲。
最后,即使整个过程都被小心翼翼地平衡,最好的办法还是在“指环三部曲”中出现一系列的变化,不管是角色扮演游戏还是棋盘游戏。角色由托尔金塑造,世界是根据他的欲望和欲望构建的。游戏在这个框架中投入的越多,参与者就会发现越少。


In similar fashion, imagine a game based on the exploits of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's magnificent sleuth Sherlock Holmes. Which of the participants wouldn’t like to play the role of the great detective? Or, at the very least, Dr. Watson? The subject matter for any such game would be particularly difficult to handle, and what would the participants do if Holmes were slain? Or merely made a fool of, for that matter?
These two examples of extrapolating a game from fiction are given only to illustrate the point about the major differences between what makes a good game and what makes a good adventure novel. The same applies to all works of fiction to a greater or lesser extent.
Delving further into the matter, we next come to the character in the adventure. In heroic fantasy novels, each character is designed to fit into the tale being told, for whatever ends the author desires. Each such character is interwoven to form the plot fabric of the work.
Such characters make for great reading, but as absolute models for games? Never! What AD&D'“ player would find it interesting to play a wizard figure of Gandalf-like proportions? What DM would allow a Conan into his or her campaign?
The object of the character in the fantasy adventure game is to provide the player with a means of interacting with the scenario, a vehicle by which the participant can engage in game activity. Each gaming character must provide interest for the participant through its potential, its unique approaches to the challenges of the game form, and yet be roughly equal to all other characters of similar level.
While novels fix character roles to suit a preordained conclusion, game personae must be designed with sufficient flexibility so as to allow for participant personality differences and multiple unknown situations.
Were a designer to offer a game form in which all participants were fighters of Conan’s ilk, participants might find it interesting at first but then the lack of challenge and objective would certainly make the game pall. If the design were then amended to allow for titanic forces to actually threaten a fighter of Conan's stature, the game merely becomes one where participants start at the top and work upwards from there.
This approach seems quite unacceptable to my way of thinking, and not necessary because it could have begun on a far more reasonable and believable level. The same logic applies to designs which feature any type of character as super-powerful. They are usually developed by individuals who do not grasp the finer points of game design, or they are thrust forward by participants who envision such characters as a vehicle to allow them to dominate an existing game form.
Were fighters to be given free rein of magic items in an AD&D game, and spells relegated to a potency typical of most heroic fantasy novels, for example, then the vast majority of participants would desire to have fighter characters. This would certainly lessen the scope of the game.
If a spell-point system which allowed magic-users to use any spell on the lists (and use them frequently, for what spell-point system doesn’t allow for rapid restoration of points?), these characters become highly dominant, and again most participants will naturally opt for this role.
Were clerics to be given use of all weapons and more offensive spells, the rush would be for priest characters.
Were thieves assumed to be more brigand and less of a sneak-thief, pickpocket character, so that they fought as fighters and possibly wore armor, then the majority of players would desire thief characters.
The point is, each AD&D character has strengths and weak
nesses which make any chosen profession less than perfect. Choose one, and you must give up the major parts of the other approaches. Each character has different and unique aspects. Playing the game with the different classes of characters offers a fresh approach, even if the basic problems are not dissimilar. The diversity of roles, without undue inequality, is what makes any game interesting and fun to play.
In a novel, diversity is a tool for the author to use in developing the protagonist’s character, for highlighting the magnitude of his or her accomplishments, as a contrast between good and evil, or whatever is needed. A novel can easily have a magic-using fighter, a sword-wielding wizard, or a thief who combines all such aspects.
The work can just as well have the antithesis of such characters — the inept swordsman; the bumbling, lack-power magician; the hopeless thief who never gains a copper. The writer knows his or her aims, and such personae are actors who follow their roles to the desired end.
以同样的方式,想象一场以阿瑟·柯南·道尔爵士(Sir Arthur Conan Doyle)的华丽侦探夏洛克·福尔摩斯(Sherlock Holmes)为原型的游戏。哪个参与者不愿意扮演大侦探的角色?或者,至少,华生医生?任何这类游戏的主题都将特别难以处理,如果福尔摩斯被杀,参与者会做些什么呢?或者仅仅是为了那件事而做了一个傻瓜?
这两个例子是为了说明一个好的游戏和一部好的冒险小说之间的主要区别。同样的情况也适用于所有的小说,或多或少。
深入研究这个问题,我们再来探讨一下冒险中的人物。在英雄奇幻小说中,每个角色都被设计成符合故事的叙述,不管作者的目的是什么。每一个这样的人物都交织在一起,形成作品的情节结构。
这样的角色能让人读到很棒的书,但作为游戏的绝对模型呢?决不!什么AD&D的玩家会觉得扮演巫师的比例是很有趣的?什么DM会允许柯南进入他或她的阵营?
在奇幻冒险游戏中,角色的目的是为玩家提供一种与场景互动的手段,玩家可以在游戏中参与游戏活动。每一个游戏角色都必须通过它的潜力、独特的方式来提供游戏形式的挑战,同时也要与其他类似级别的角色保持一致。
虽然小说中人物角色的设定是为了满足预先设定的结论,但游戏人物必须具备足够的灵活性,以允许参与者的个性差异和多重未知的情况。
作为一名设计师提供一种游戏的形式,所有的参与者都是柯南的伊尔克的战士,他们一开始可能会觉得很有趣,但由于缺乏挑战和客观的目标,游戏就会变得很简单。如果当时的设计被修改成可以让泰坦尼克的力量真正威胁到一个柯南的形象,那么这个游戏就会变成一个参与者从顶端开始往上走的游戏。
这种方法对我的思维方式来说似乎是不可接受的,而且没有必要,因为它本来可以从一个更合理、更可信的层次开始。同样的逻辑也适用于以任何类型的角色为超级强大的设计。他们通常是由那些不懂游戏设计细节的人开发的,或者他们被那些设想这样的角色作为一种工具来主导现有游戏形式的参与者所推动。
例如,在一场AD&D游戏中,战士们可以自由地控制魔法物品,并将魔法降级为最典型的英雄幻想小说的一种力量,然后绝大多数的参与者都渴望拥有战斗角色。这肯定会减少游戏的范围。
如果一个法术点系统允许魔法使用者在名单上使用任何法术(并且频繁使用,因为哪个法术点系统不允许快速恢复点?),这些角色将变得非常具有统治性,并且大多数的参与者将会自然地选择这个角色。
如果牧师会使用所有的武器和更多的进攻法术,那么对牧师角色的冲击就会出现。
盗贼们被认为是更强盗,更不像小偷,小偷,小偷,所以他们作为战士战斗,可能还穿着盔甲,大多数的玩家都渴望小偷的角色。
重点是,每个ad&d角色都有自己的长处和不足
使任何一种选择的职业不完美。选择一种,你必须放弃其他方法的主要部分。每个角色都有不同和独特的方面。用不同的角色来玩游戏提供了一种全新的方式,即使这些基本的问题并没有不一样。角色的多样性,没有过度的不平等,是使游戏有趣和有趣的原因。
在小说中,多样性是作者用来发展主人公性格的工具,强调他或她的成就的重要性,这是善与恶的对比,或任何需要的东西。一部小说很容易就会有一个使用魔法的战士,一个挥舞剑的巫师,或者一个结合了所有这些方面的小偷。
作品也同样具有这样的人物的对立面——无能的剑客;笨手笨脚的,缺少力量的魔术师;不可救药的贼,永远不会得到铜。作者知道他或她的目标,而这样的角色是演员,他们跟随自己的角色到理想的结局。
Contrary to this, in the fantasy role-playing game, characters are the principal authors of the adventure epic which is developed by means of the rules, the Dungeon Master’s scripting, and the players’ interaction with these and each other. With characters of too much or little power, the story rapidly becomes a farce or a tragedy!
By all means, do not discard heroic fantasy novels as useless to gaming. They are, in fact, of utmost benefit! If the basis of the game is a setting which allows maximum imaginative input from players, and characters’ roles are both unique and viable (as well as relatively balanced as compared to one another), ideas for these areas and for all the structure and "dressing" are inspired from such fictional works.
With appropriate knowledge of what can only be called primary source material as regards heroic fantasy (the classic mythology works of Europe, et al), these novels not only engender fresh ideas, they also point the designer or DM toward other areas. After all, the authors of such works often have considerable knowledge of subject matter ideal for use in heroic fantasy adventure gaming. Tolkien drew heavily upon British myth, the Norse sagas and Eddas, and even the word ent is from the Saxon tongue, meaning giant.
There is certainly much to be learned from scholarly writers, and they can often point the reader toward the source material they used. As a case in point, L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt cite Faerie Queen and Orlando Furioso as sources for parts of The Incomplete Enchanter and The Castle of Iron. The latter stories are exceptionally fine examples of heroic fantasy adventure. The former works are excellent inspirational sources.
The “G Series" modules (Steading of the Hill Giant Chief, Glacial Rift of the Frost Giant Jarl, and Hall of the Fire Giant King) were certainly inspired by de Camp and Pratt’s The Incomplete Enchanter. The three "D Series” modules which continue the former series owe little, if anything, to fiction. Drow are mentioned in Keightley’s The Fairy Mythology, as I recall (it might have been The Secret Commonwealth — neither book is before me, and it is not all that important anyway), and as Dark Elves of evil nature, they served as an ideal basis for the creation of a unique new mythos designed especially for the AD&D game. The roles the various drow are designed to play in the series are commensurate with those of prospective player characters. In fact, the race could be used for player characters, providing that appropriate penalties were levied when a drow or half-drow was in the daylight world.
The sketchy story line behind the series was written with the game in mind, so rules and roles were balanced to suit the AD&D system. It is not difficult to write a tale based on AD&D characters, but it is difficult to try to fit regular characters from an heroic fantasy novel into the AD&D mold. There are exceptions.
Individual characters from myth or authored mythos can be used as special characters of the non-player sort (monsters, if you will) for inclusion in scenarios. Most such characters can be altered to fit into the AD&D structure — or rules can be bent in order to allow for them as an exceptional case — in order to make the campaign more interesting and exciting.
That is not to say that they can be used as role models for character types in the game — that Melniboneans, for exam pie, are suitable as player characters just because Elric is inserted into a scenario. This sort of thinking quickly narrows the scope of the game to one or two combination-profession character types with virtually unlimited powers and potential, and there goes the game!
So when you are tempted to allow character additions or alterations which cite this or that work as a basis for the exception, consider the ultimate effect such deviation will have on the campaign, both immediate and long-term.
Keep roles from novels in their proper place — either as enjoyable reading or as special insertions of the non-player sort. The fact that thus-and-so magic-user in a fantasy yarn always employs a magic sword, or that the Gray Mouser, a thief, is a commensurate bladesman, has absolutely nothing to do with the balance between character classes in the AD&D system.
Clerics, fighter, magic-users, thieves, et al are purposely designed to have strengths and weaknesses which give each profession a unique approach to solving the problems posed by the game. Strengthening one by alteration or addition actually abridges the others and narrows the scope of your campaign.
与此相反,在奇幻角色扮演游戏中,角色是冒险史诗的主要作者,它是由规则、地下城主人的脚本以及玩家与这些人之间的互动而发展起来的。由于角色太多或力量小,故事很快就变成了闹剧或悲剧!
无论如何,不要把英雄幻想小说当作游戏的无用之物。他们实际上是最大的受益者!如果游戏的基础是一个允许玩家发挥最大想象力的场景,角色的角色都是独特的和可行的(以及相对比较平衡的),对于这些领域的想法以及所有的结构和“着装”都是从这样的虚构作品中获得灵感的。
对于那些只能被称为“英雄幻想”(欧洲经典神话作品)的原始素材,这些小说不仅能产生新颖的想法,还能将设计师或DM指向其他领域。毕竟,这类作品的作者通常都有相当多的题材,在英雄幻想冒险游戏中可以使用。托尔金对英国神话、挪威神话和爱达斯(Eddas)都有很大的影响,甚至连“ent”这个词也来自于撒克逊语,意思是巨人。
从学术作家身上可以学到很多东西,他们也可以把读者引向他们所使用的来源材料。作为一个例子,l . Sprague de Camp和Fletcher Pratt引用Faerie Queen和Orlando Furioso作为不完整的巫师和铁城堡的部分来源。后一种故事是英雄幻想冒险的极好例子。以前的作品都是极好的灵感来源。
“G系列”的模块(山大酋长、冰霜巨人Jarl的冰川裂谷和火大国王的大厅)都是由德坎普和普拉特的《不完全魔法师》所激发的。这三部“D系列”继续前一季的故事,如果有什么影响的话,也没什么可说的。在我的回忆中,卓尔在《基特利的童话故事》中提到过(这可能是一个秘密的联邦——在我之前都没有书,而且它也不是那么重要),作为邪恶的黑暗精灵,它们是创造一个独特的新神话的理想基础,特别为AD&D游戏设计。不同的drow设计的角色在系列中扮演的角色与未来玩家角色的角色相当。事实上,比赛可以被用于球员的角色,当一个卓尔或半卓尔在日光世界的时候,提供适当的惩罚。
这个系列背后的故事主线是用游戏的思想来写的,所以规则和角色是平衡的,以适应AD&D系统。写一个基于AD&D角色的故事并不难,但是很难将一个英雄幻想小说中的普通角色融入到AD&D模子里。也有例外。
神话或创作的神话中的人物可以作为非玩家类型的特殊角色(如果你愿意的话)可以在场景中加入。大多数这样的角色都可以被修改,以适应AD&D的结构——或者规则可以被弯曲,以使它们成为一个特殊的情况——以便使竞选活动更加有趣和激动人心。
这并不是说它们可以作为游戏中的角色类型的角色模型——Melniboneans,作为测试派,适合作为玩家角色,只是因为Elric被插入到一个场景中。这种思维方式很快将游戏的范围缩小到一到两个组合职业的角色类型,拥有几乎无限的力量和潜力,游戏就这样进行了!
因此,当你想要允许角色添加或修改时,把这个或那个工作作为例外的基础,考虑这样的偏差对竞选的最终影响,无论是直接的还是长期的。
把小说的角色放在适当的位置——既可以是令人愉快的阅读,也可以是非玩家类型的特殊插入。在幻想的故事中,这样的魔术师总是使用一把魔剑,或者是灰捕鼠,一个贼,是一个与之相对应的人,与ad&d系统中的角色阶级之间的平衡完全没有关系。
神职人员、战士、魔术师、小偷等都是故意设计的,他们有各自的长处和弱点,为每个职业提供了一种独特的方法来解决游戏所带来的问题。通过改变或增加来强化其中的一种会让其他人减少并缩小你的竞选范围。
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

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Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #31 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:11:21 »
机翻第十四弹


JAN.
1980
#33
“ . . . the AD&D magic system is a combination of reputed magic drawn from works of fiction and from myth. ”
“The new form which spell casting has taken in the AD&D game has a more realistic flavor to it . . . it requires far more effort from spell-casters in gaining, preparing, and casting spells . ”
”···AD&D魔法系统是由小说和神话故事结合而成的。“
“魔咒在ad&d游戏中所采用的新形式,对它有一种更现实的味道。”在获得、准备和施法的过程中,施法者需要付出更多的努力。“
From issue #33 January 1980


Working up rules about make-believe can be difficult. Magic, at least AD&DT“ magic, is most certainly make-believe. If there are "black arts” and “occult sciences" which deal with real, working magic spells, I have yet to see them.
Mildly put, I do not have any faith in the powers of magic, nor have I ever seen anyone who could perform anything approaching a mere first- level AD&D spell without props. Yet heroic fantasy has long been one of my favorite subjects, and while I do not believe in invincible superheroes, wicked magicians, fire-breathing dragons, and the stuff of fairie, I love it all nonetheless! Being able to not only read about heroic adventures of this sort, but also to play them as a game form, increased the prospects of this enjoyment of imaginary worlds. So magic and dragons and superheroes and all such things were added to Chainmail.
Simply desiring to play fantasy-based games does not bring them into being as a usable product. Most of the subject matter dealt with has only a limited range of treatment. Thus, giants are always written of as large and not overly bright, save in classical mythology, of course. Some are larger than others, and some are turned to stone by sunlight, and so on, but the basics were there to draw from, and no real problems were posed in selecting characteristics for such creatures in a game. The same is basically true for many monsters and even adventurers — heroes, magic-users, et al. Not so with magic. There are nearly as many treatments of magic as there are books which deal with it. What approach to take? In Chainmail, this was not a particularly difficult decision. The wizard using the magic was simply a part of an overall scheme, so the spells just worked: As a catapult hurled boulders, so a wizard threw fire balls or lightning bolts; elves could move invisibly, split-move and fire bows, and engage monsters if armed with magical weapons, while wizards could become invisible or cast spells.
When it came time to translate the cut-and-dried stuff of the Chainmail Fantasy Supplement to the original DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® rules, far more selection and flexibility had to be delivered, for the latter game was free-form. This required me to back up several steps to a point where the figure began a career which would eventually bring him or her to the state where they would equal (and eventually exceed) a Chainmail wizard. Similarly, some basis for the use of magic had to be created so that a system of spell acquisition could be devised. Where should the magic power come from? Literature gave many possible answers, but most were unsuitable for a game, for they demanded that the spell-caster spend an inordinate amount of time preparing the spell. No viable adventurer character could be devised where a week or two of preliminary steps were demanded for the conjuration of some not particularly mighty spell. On the other hand, spell-casters could not be given license to broadcast magic whenever and wherever they chose.
This left me with two major areas to select from. The internal power, or manna, system where each spell-caster uses energy from within to effect magic, requires assigning a total point value to each such character’s manna, and a cost in points to each spell. It is tedious to keep track of, difficult to police, and allows magic-users far too much freedom where a broad range of spells are given. If spell points were to be used, it would require that either selection be limited or all other characters and monsters be strengthened. Otherwise, spell-users would quickly come to dominate the game, and participants would desire to play only that class of character. (As a point of reference, readers are referred to the handling of psionic abilities as originally treated in Eldritch Wizardry. Therein, psionic manna was assumed, the internal power usable to tap external sources, and the range of possible powers thus usable was sharply limited.)
Having read widely in the fantasy genre since 1950, I opted instead for the oft-used system which assumes that magic comes from power locked within certain words and phrases which are uttered to release the force. This mnemonic power system was exceedingly well articulated by Jack Vance in his superb novels The Eyes of The Overworld and Dying Earth, as well as in various short stories. In memorizing the magical words, the brain of the would-be spell-caster is taxed by the charged force of these syllables. To increase capacity, the spell-caster must undergo training, study, and mental discipline.
This is not to say that he or she ever understands the words, but the capacity to hold them in the memory and to speak them correctly increases thus. The magic words, in turn, trigger energy which causes the spell to work.
制定关于虚构的规则可能会很困难。魔法,至少是“魔法”,是最让人相信的。如果有“黑魔法”和“神秘科学”来处理真正的魔法咒语,我还没有看到它们。
温和地说,我对魔法的力量没有任何信心,我也从来没有见过任何一个人能在没有道具的情况下,表演任何接近一级的AD&D法术。然而,英雄般的幻想一直是我最喜欢的题材之一,虽然我不相信无敌超级英雄,邪恶的魔术师,喷火的龙,还有fairie的东西,但我仍然热爱它!不仅能够阅读这类英雄的冒险故事,还能将其作为一种游戏形式,增加了想象世界的乐趣。所以魔法,龙,超级英雄和所有这些东西都被加入了链甲。
仅仅想玩基于幻想的游戏并不能使他们成为一个有用的产品。大多数的课题只涉及有限的治疗范围。因此,巨人总是被认为是巨大的,而不是过于明亮的,当然,除了在古典神话中。有些比其他的更大,有些则是通过阳光转化成石头,等等,但是基本的东西是从那里汲取的,而且在游戏中选择这些生物的特征并没有真正的问题。对于很多怪物甚至冒险者来说也是如此——英雄、魔法用户等。关于魔法的处理,几乎和处理它的书一样多。采取什么方法?在Chainmail中,这并不是一个特别困难的决定。使用魔法的巫师只是整个计划的一部分,所以咒语只是起到了作用:就像一个弹射器投掷石块,所以一个巫师投掷了火球或闪电;精灵们可以无形地移动,分裂移动,发射弓箭,用魔法武器攻击怪物,而巫师可以隐身或施法。
当把链邮件幻想补充物的剪切和干的东西翻译成原来的地下城和龙的规则时,需要更多的选择和灵活性,因为后一种游戏是自由的。这要求我后退几步到一个点,在这个点上,这个人物开始了一个职业生涯,这个职业最终会把他或她带到一个他们将平等(并最终超过)一个链甲巫师的状态。类似地,必须创建一些使用魔法的基础,这样就可以设计出一个法术获取系统。魔法的力量从何而来?文学给出了许多可能的答案,但大多数都不适合做游戏,因为他们要求施咒者花大量时间准备咒语。在需要一两个星期的初步步骤来召唤一些不是特别强大的咒语的时候,没有一个可行的冒险者的角色。另一方面,拼写者不可能被允许在任何地点和地点使用魔法。
这让我有两个主要的选择。每一个施法者使用能量的内在力量,或者是“吗哪”系统,需要为每个这样的角色的吗哪分配一个总点数,以及每一个法术的成本。对警察来说,追踪、难以追踪、允许魔法使用者的自由范围太大,而这是一项很繁琐的工作。如果要使用法术点,则要么选择有限,要么所有其他角色和怪物被强化。否则,拼写使用者很快就会主导游戏,而参与者只希望玩这类角色。(作为参考,读者可以参考在Eldritch巫术中最初处理的心灵能力的处理。在这里面,灵能吗?可以假定,内部力量可以利用外部资源,因此可用的异能的范围非常有限。)
从1950年起,我就开始广泛阅读奇幻题材的作品,我选择了一种常用的系统,它认为魔法是由特定的词汇和短语的力量所控制的,而这些词是用来释放力量的。这个记忆的力量系统在杰克·万斯的杰出小说中极好地阐述了他的小说《超世界的眼睛》和《垂死的地球》,以及各种短篇小说。在记忆这些不可思议的单词时,那些想要施咒的人的大脑会被这些音节的力量所消耗。要提高能力,施咒者必须接受训练、学习和精神训练。
这并不是说他或她理解这些话,而是说他们能够在记忆中保持他们的能力,并能正确地表达他们的意思。魔法咒语反过来触发能量,使咒语生效。
The so-called “Vancian" magic system allows a vast array of spells. Each is assigned a level (mnemonic difficulty) rating, and experience grades are used to expand the capacity of the spell-caster. The use of this particular system allows more restrictions upon spell-casting character types, of course, while allowing freedom to assign certain spells to lower difficulty factors to keep the character type viable in its early stages. It also has the distinct advantages of requiring that spell-users select their magic prior to knowing what they must face, and limiting bookkeeping to a simple list of spells which are crossed off as expended.
The mnemonic spell system can be explained briefly thus: Magic works because certain key words and phrases (sounds) unlock energy from elsewhere. The sounds are inscribed in arcane texts or religious works available to spell-users. Only training and practice will allow increased memory capacity, thus allowing more spells to be used. Once uttered, the sounds discharge their power, and this discharge not only unlocks energy from elsewhere, but it also wipes all memory of the particular words or phrases from the speaker’s brain. Finally, the energy manifested by the speaking of the sounds will take a set form, depending on the pronunciation and order of the sounds. So a Sleep spell or a Charm Monster spell is uttered and the magic effected, the mind is wiped clean of the memory of what the sounds were, but by careful concentration and study later, the caster can again memorize these keys.
When the ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® game system was in the conceptual stage, I realized that while the “Vancian” system was the best approach to spell-casting in fantasy adventure games, the DUNGEONS & DRAGONS system did not go far enough in defining, delineating, and restricting its use. Merely having words was insufficient, so elements of other systems would have to be added to make a better system. While it could be similar in concept to D&D® spellcasting, it had to be quite different in all aspects, including practice, in order to bring it up to a higher level of believability and playability with respect to other classes.
The AD&D magic system was therefore predicated on the concept that there were three power-trigger keys — the cryptic utterances, hypnotic gestures, and special substances — the verbal, somatic, and material components, possible in various combinations, which are needed to effect magic. This aspect is less “Vancian,” if you will, but at the same time the system overall is more so, for reasons you will see later.
Verbal spell components, the energy-charged special words and phrases, are necessary in most spells. These special sounds are not general knowledge, and each would-be spell- caster must study in order to even begin to comprehend their reading, meaning, and pronunciation, i.e., undergo an apprenticeship. The basic assumption of this training is the ability to actually handle such matter; this ability is expressed in intelligence or wisdom minimums for each appropriate spell-using profession.
Somatic spell components, the ritual gestures which also draw the power, must also be learned and practiced. This manual skill is less important in clericism, where touching or the use of a holy/unholy symbol is generally all that is involved, while in the illusionist class it is of great importance, as much of the spell power is connected with redirection of mental energy.
Material components are also generally needed. This expansion into sympathetic magic follows the magic portrayed by L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt in their superb “Harold Shea” stories, for example. Of course, it is a basic part of primitive magic systems practiced by mankind. In general, some certain material or materials are also needed to complete the flow of power from the spell-caster, which in turn will draw energy from some other place and cause the spell to happen.
In order to obtain greater spell capabilities, the spell-caster must do considerable studying, and he or she must also have source material to study. The AD&D system assumes that such material is hard to come by, and even if a spell-casterr is capable of knowing/memorizing many and high-level spells, he or she must find them (in the case of magic-users and illusionists) or have the aid of deities or minions thereof (in the situation faced by clerics and druids). These strictures apply to other professions which are empowered with spell use, as appropriate to the type of spells in question. In order to expand mnemonic capacity, spell-users must do further study and be trained. Thus, the system is in some ways more “Vancian," as such information and studies are indicated, if not necessarily detailed, in the works of that author. It might also be said that the system takes on “Lovecraftian" overtones, harkening to tomes of arcane and dread lore.
所谓的“Vancian”魔法系统允许大量的法术。每个被分配一个等级(助记难度)等级,经验等级被用来扩大施咒者的能力。当然,这个特殊的系统的使用允许更多的对施法角色类型的限制,同时允许自由分配特定的法术来降低难度因素,使角色类型在早期就能存活。它还具有独特的优势,即要求使用者在知道自己必须面对的事物之前,选择他们的魔法,并将其限制在一个简单的咒语列表中,而这些咒语被用来作为花费。
这种记忆法术系统可以简单地解释为:魔法工程,因为某些关键字和短语(声音)从其他地方释放能量。这些声音被镌刻在神秘的文本或宗教作品中,供使用者使用。只有训练和练习才能提高记忆能力,从而允许使用更多的法术。一旦发出声音,这些声音就会释放出它们的能量,而这种放电不仅释放了来自其他地方的能量,而且还能清除说话者大脑中特定单词或短语的所有记忆。最后,根据声音的发音和顺序,说话声音所表现出来的能量会以一种固定的形式出现。因此,一个睡眠法术或一个咒语怪物的咒语被发出,魔法生效,心灵被抹去对声音的记忆,但是通过仔细的专注和学习,施法者可以再次记住这些钥匙。
当先进的龙与龙游戏系统处于概念阶段时,我意识到,虽然“v西娅”系统是幻想冒险游戏中的最佳方法,但龙与地下城系统在定义、描述和限制它的使用方面做得还不够。仅仅有文字是不够的,所以需要添加其他系统的元素来创建一个更好的系统。虽然可能类似于D&D®施法的概念,它必须在各个方面完全不同,包括实践中,为了达到更高层次的可信度和可玩性对其他类。
因此,AD&D魔法系统是基于这样一个概念,即有三个动力触发键——神秘的话语、催眠的手势和特殊的物质——语言的、躯体的和物质的组成部分,可能有各种各样的组合,这些都是魔法所需要的。这方面的“Vancian”更少,但同时系统总体上更有意义,因为稍后您将看到。
语言法术成分,能量消耗的特殊词汇和短语,在大多数法术中都是必需的。这些特殊的声音不是一般的知识,每一个想要成为咒语的人都必须学习,以便开始理解他们的阅读、意义和发音,即。做个学徒。这种训练的基本假设是实际处理这些问题的能力;这一能力是用智力或智慧的最低限度来表达的,适用于每一个适当的拼写职业。
躯体法术的组成部分,也要吸取力量的仪式手势,也必须学习和练习。这种手工技能在神职人员中不那么重要,在那里触摸或使用神圣/不神圣的符号通常都是相关的,而在魔术师的课堂上,这是非常重要的,因为大部分的法术力都与精神能量的重定向有关。
材料的组成也是普遍需要的。例如,在《哈罗德·谢伊》的故事中,斯普拉格·德·坎普和弗莱契·普拉特所描绘的魔法,将这种膨胀转化为富于同情心的魔法。当然,它是人类所实践的原始魔法系统的基本组成部分。一般来说,一些特定的材料或材料也需要从施法者那里完成能量的流动,而施法者也会从其他地方吸取能量并导致法术的发生。
为了获得更大的法术能力,施咒者必须进行大量的学习,他或她也必须有来源材料来学习。AD&D系统假设这样的材料很难得到,即使一个拼写- casterr能够知道/记住许多高级法术,他/她必须找到他们(在magic - users和illusiUNK的例子中),或者得到神的帮助(在牧师和德鲁伊教的情况下)。这些限制适用于其他有法术的职业,适用于问题的类型。为了扩大记忆能力,拼写使用者必须进行进一步的学习和训练。因此,在某种程度上,系统在某种程度上更像“van”,因为这样的信息和研究在作者的著作中被指出,即使不一定详细。也可以说,这个系统采用了“爱克拉夫提”的泛音,对神秘和恐惧的传说进行了反复的强调。
In addition to the strictures on locating the information for new spells, and the acquisition of the ability to cast (new, more powerful) spells, the requirements of verbal, somatic, and material components in most spell-casting highlight the following facts regarding the interruption and spoiling of spells: Silencing the caster will generally ruin the spell or prevent its instigation. Any interruption of the somatic gestures — such as is accomplished by a successful blow, grappling, overbearing, or even severe jostling — likewise spoils the magic. Lack of material components, or the alteration or spoiling thereof, will similarly cause the spell to come to naught.
Of course, this assumes the spell has the appropriate verbal, somatic, or material components. Some few spells have only a verbal component, fewer still only verbal and material components, a handful only somatic and material, and just one has a somatic component alone. (Which fact will most certainly change if I ever have the opportunity to add to the list of illusionists’ spells, for on reflection, I am convinced that this class should have more spells of somatic component only —but that’s another story.)
All of these triggers mean that it is both more difficult to cast a spell, especially when the new casting-time restrictions are taken into account, and easier to interrupt a spell before it is successfully cast.
Consider the casting of a typical spell with V, S, and M components. When the caster has opportunity and the desire to cast a spell, he or she must utter the special energy-charged sound patterns attendant to the magic, gesture appropriately, and hold or discard the material component(s) as necessary to finally effect the spell. Ignoring the appropriate part or parts, all spells are cast thus, the time of conjuration to effect the dweomer varying from but a single segment to many minutes or tens of minutes. These combinations allow a more believable magic system, albeit the requirements placed upon spell-casters are more stringent, and even that helps greatly to balance play from profession to profession.
A part and parcel of the AD&D magic system is the general classification of each spell by its effect. That is, whether the spell causes an alteration, is a conjuration/summoning, enchantment! charm, etc. This grouping enables ease of adjudication of changes of spell effects or negation of power. It also makes it easier to classify new spells by using the grouping.
It seems inevitable that the classification and component functions will eventually lead to further extrapolation. The energy triggers of sound and motion will be categorized and defined in relation to the class of dweomer to be effected. This will indicate from whence the magic actually comes, i.e., from what location or plane of existence the end result of a successfully cast spell actually comes. Perhaps this will lead to a spellcasting character having to actually speak a rime, in addition (perhaps) to indicating what special movements are to be made, and how material components are to be used. While this is not seriously proposed for the play of a "normal” game, the wherewithal to do so will probably be available to DMs whose participants are so inclined.
It all has a more important and useful purpose, however. Defining the energy triggers will make it possible to matrix combinations by class of spell-caster and dweomer group. Mispronounced spells, or research into new spells, will become far more interesting in many ways if and when such information is available and put into use!
As it now stands, the AD&D magic system is a combination of reputed magic drawn from works of fiction and from myth. Although they are not defined, verbal and somatic components are necessary energy-triggers. The memorization of these special sounds and motions is difficult, and when they are properly used, they release their small stores of energy to trigger power from elsewhere. This release totally wipes all memory of sound and/or motion from the memory of the spell caster, but it does not otherwise seriously affect his or her brain — although the mnemonic exercise of learning them in the first place is unquestionably taxing. Duplicates of the same spell can be remembered also, but the cast spell is gone until its source is again carefully perused.
除了对新法术的信息定位的限制,以及对法术(新的,更强的)法术的获取,在大多数施法中,语言、体细胞和材料的要求都强调了以下事实:对施法者的干扰和破坏:沉默的施法者通常会毁灭法术或防止法术的产生。任何对身体动作的干扰——比如成功的打击、扭打、霸占、甚至是激烈的推搡——同样会破坏魔术。缺少物质成分,或者改变或破坏它,同样会导致魔法化为乌有。
当然,这是假定这个法术有适当的语言、身体或物质组成部分。一些法术只有口头上的成分,更少的只有口头和物质的成分,少数的只有躯体和物质,只有一个有躯体的成分。(如果我有机会加入魔术师的咒语列表,我相信这门课只会有更多的躯体成分的咒语,这是另一回事了。)
所有这些触发因素都意味着,要施放一个法术难度更大,尤其是当新的施法时间限制被考虑在内时,并且在成功施放之前更容易中断一个法术。
考虑一个典型的带有V、S和M个组成部分的咒语。当施法者有机会并渴望施法时,他或她必须向魔法、手势适当地发出特殊的充满能量的声音模式,并持有或抛弃必要的物质成分以最终影响法术效果。忽略适当的部分或部分,所有的法术都是这样的,召唤魔法的时间从一个单一的片段变到许多分钟或几十分钟。这些组合允许一个更加可信的魔法系统,尽管对施法者的要求更加严格,甚至对职业和职业之间的平衡起到了很大的帮助。
ad&d魔法系统的一个组成部分是每个法术的一般分类。也就是说,这个咒语是否会造成改变,是一个咒语/召唤,魔法!魅力等。这个分组可以轻松地判定法术效果的变化或对异能的否定。它也使得使用分组来分类新的法术变得更容易。
分类和组件功能最终会导致进一步的推断,这似乎是不可避免的。声音和运动的能量触发将被分类,并定义与要影响的dweomer类相关。这就说明了魔法是怎么来的,也就是说,从存在的位置或平面上,一个成功的施法的最终结果实际上来了。也许这将导致施法的角色其实不得不说霜,除了(也许)表示特殊的运动是什么,以及材料组件是如何被使用。虽然这并不是为“正常”游戏的游戏而严肃地提出的,但对于那些参与者如此倾向于此的DMs来说,这样做的资金可能是可用的。
然而,这一切都有一个更为重要和有用的目的。定义能量触发器将使施法者和dweomer组的矩阵组合成为可能。错误的法术,或者对新法术的研究,在很多方面会变得更有趣,当这些信息可用并且投入使用的时候!
就像现在这样,AD&D魔法系统是一种由小说和神话创作的著名魔术的组合。虽然它们没有被定义,但是语言和身体的组成部分是必要的能量触发因素。这些特殊的声音和动作的记忆是很困难的,当它们被正确的使用时,它们会释放它们的能量来触发其他地方的能量。这个释放完全消除了对施咒者记忆中的声音和/或动作的记忆,但这并不会严重地影响到他/她的大脑——尽管在最初的记忆中学习这些记忆的过程无疑是费力的。重复相同的法术也可以记住,但是法术消失了,直到它再次认真仔细阅读来源。
The new form which spell casting has taken in the AD&D game has a more realistic flavor to it — unimportant, but some players revel in this sort of thing, and that is well enough. Of real importance, however, is the fact that it requires far more effort from spell-casters in gaining, preparing, and casting spells. It makes them more vulnerable to attacks which spoil the casting of the spell. All in all, it tends to make each and every profession possible for characters in an AD&D game to be more equal to, but still very different from, all of the others. Lastly, it opens up new areas where new development can be done at some future time, and if such new material adds significantly to the enjoyment of the game, it will certainly be published — perhaps first in experimental form herein, then possibly in final form in a revised edition of the work itself.
If the foregoing doesn't completely explain everything you or your players wish to know about the AD&D magic system; if after all of those words there are still unanswered questions, doubt, or disputes, remember the last and overriding principle of the whole: It's magic!
在AD&D游戏中,施法的新形式有一种更现实的味道——不重要,但有些玩家沉迷于这种东西,这就足够了。然而,真正重要的是,在获得、准备和施法的过程中,施法者需要付出更多的努力。这使他们更容易受到攻击,破坏了法术的施法。总而言之,它倾向于使AD&D游戏中角色的每一个职业都变得更平等,但仍然与其他所有职业不同。最后,它开辟了新的领域,在未来的某个时间可以进行新的开发,如果这种新材料能显著增加游戏的乐趣,那么它肯定会被出版——也许首先是在实验的形式,然后可能最终的形式在修订版本的工作本身。
如果上述内容不能完全解释你或你的玩家想知道的关于ad&d魔法系统的一切;如果这些话仍然不能解决问题,疑问,或纠纷,记得最后的也是压倒一切的一条原则:这就是魔法!
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

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Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #32 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:11:55 »
机翻第十五弹


JUNE
1980
#38
There seems to be a continuing misunderstanding amongst a segment of ADVANCED D&D® players as to what the term “good” actually means. This problem does cut both ways, of course, for if good is not clearly defined, how can evil be known? Moral and ethical precepts are based on religious doctrines, secular laws, family teachings, and individual perceptions of these combined tenets. It might be disturbing if one reflected deeply upon the whys and wherefores of the singular inability of so many players to determine for themselves the rights and wrongs of good behavior — unless one related this inability to the fact that the game is fantasy and therefore realized (rationalized?) that this curious lack must stem from the inability to draw a parallel between daily life and the imagined milieu. In order to clear the record immediately, then, and define the term “good” for all participants, it means everything defined in the dictionary as augmented and modified by one’s moral and ethical upbringing and the laws of the land!
Gentle Reader, if you are in doubt about a certain action —and this applies particularly to all who play rangers and paladins — relate it to your real life. It is most probable that what is considered “good” in reality can be “good” in fantasy. The reverse is not quite so true, so I’ll quantify things a bit.
Good does not mean stupid, even if your DM tries to force that concept upon you. Such assertions are themselves asinine, and those who accept such dictates are stupid. To quantify “good,” however, we must also consider the three modifiers in the AD&D™ alignment system: 1) lawful; 2) neutral; and 3) chaotic.
1)   The lawful perception of good dictates that the order which promotes the greatest good for the greatest number is best. It further postulates that disorder brings results which erode the capability of bestowing good to the majority. Therefore, without law and order, good pales into nothingness.
2)   Good from the neutral perception is perhaps the purest sort, in that it cares not for order or individual freedom above overall good, so there are no constraints upon the definition of what is good. Whatever accomplishes the good result is acceptable, and the means used should not be so fixed as to bring bad to any creature if an alternative way exists which accomplishes the desired good without bringing ill to others — or better still, brings good to all in one degree or another.
3)   The chaotic views good from an individual standpoint, of necessity. The very stuff of chaos is individual volition, freedom from all constraints, the right of person above all else. Good is first and foremost applied to self; thereafter to those surrounding self; lastly to those furthest removed from self — a ripple effect, if you will. It is important to understand that “good” for self must not mean “bad” for others, although the “good” for self might not bring like benefits to others — or any benefit at all, for that matter. However, the latter case is justifiable as “good” only if it enables the individual to be in a better position to bring real “good” to others within the foreseeable future.
One of the advantages of the AD&D environment over the real world is that we do have pretty clear definitions of good and evil — if not conceptually (as is evident from the necessity of this article), at least nominally. Characters and monsters alike bear handy labels to allow for easy identification of their moral and ethical standing. Black is black, gray is gray, white is white. There are intensities of black, degrees of grayness, and shades of white, but the big tags are there to read nonetheless.
The final arbiter in any campaign is the DM, the person who figuratively puts in the fine print on these alignment labels, but he or she must follow the general outlines of the rule book or else face the fact that his or her campaign is not an AD&D campaign. Furthermore, participants in such a campaign can cease playing. That is the surest and most vocal manner in which to demonstrate displeasure with the conduct of a referee. In effect, the labels and their general meanings are defined in the AD&D rules, and the details must be scribed by the group participating.
在一些高级的d&d球员中,似乎存在着一种持续的误解,那就是所谓的“好”一词实际上指的是什么。这个问题模棱两可,当然,如果没有清晰的定义好,邪恶怎么能知道?道德和伦理的戒律是基于宗教教义、世俗法律、家庭教义和个人对这些组合原则的看法。如果一个人深刻地反映出了这些问题的原因,就会让人感到不安,因为很多人都无法决定好行为的权利和错误,除非其中一个人认为这个游戏是幻想,因此意识到这是一种无法在日常生活和想象的环境中形成平行的问题,这是一种无法理解的现象。为了立即澄清这一记录,并为所有参与者定义“好”这个词,它意味着字典中定义的所有东西都是由一个人的道德和道德教养和土地法律所定义的。
温和的读者,如果你对某一行动有疑问——这尤其适用于所有玩游骑兵和圣骑士的人——把它与你的现实生活联系起来。最可能的是,在现实中被认为是“好”的东西在幻想中是“好的”。相反的情况并不完全正确,所以我要对一些东西进行量化。
好的并不意味着愚蠢,即使你的DM试图强加给你这个概念。这样的断言本身就是愚蠢的,而接受这种说法的人是愚蠢的。然而,为了量化“好”,我们还必须考虑到ad&d校准系统中的三个修饰词:1)合法;2)中性;和3)混乱。
1)对良善的合法看法表明,为最伟大的人提供最大利益的次序是最好的。它进一步假定,混乱带来的结果削弱了对大多数人有利的能力。因此,没有法律和秩序,美好就会化为乌有。
2)从中立的观点来看,好的东西也许是最纯粹的,因为它不关心秩序或个人自由高于整体的好,所以对什么是好的定义没有限制。无论结果如何,都是可以接受的,而使用的手段不应被认为是对任何生物造成的伤害,如果有另一种方法能够达到理想的效果而不让他人生病,或者更好的是,在某种程度上也能带来好的结果。
3)从个人立场出发的混乱观点是有必要的。混乱的本质是个人的意愿,自由不受约束,人的权利高于一切。好是首先应用于自我;之后,对周围的人;最后是那些远离自我的人——如果你愿意的话,会产生连锁反应。重要的是要明白“好”对自己并不意味着“坏”,尽管对自己的“好”可能不会给别人带来好处,或者任何好处,就这一点而言。然而,后一种情况是正当的,只有当它使个人在可预见的将来能够更好地为他人带来真正的“好”。
AD&D环境对现实世界的一个好处是,我们确实对善与恶有相当清晰的定义——如果不是概念上的(从本文的必要性来看),至少是名义上的。角色和怪物都有方便的标签,以方便识别他们的道德和道德地位。黑色是黑色,灰色是灰色,白色是白色。黑色、灰色和白色的色调都有强烈的色彩,但无论如何,这些大的标签都是可以阅读的。
在任何竞选活动中,最后的仲裁者都是DM,这个人在这些对齐标签上象征性地印上了精美的图案,但他或她必须遵循规则书的大致轮廓,否则就必须面对他或她的竞选活动不是AD&D运动的事实。此外,参加这种活动的人可以停止玩。这是对裁判的行为表示不满的最可靠和最直言不讳的方式。实际上,标签和它们的一般含义是在ad&d规则中定义的,具体的细节必须由参与小组的成员来定义。
Perceptions of good vary according to age, culture, and theological training. A child sees no good in punishment meted out by parents — let us say for playing with matches. Cultural definitions of good might call for a loud belch after eating, or the killing of any person who performs some taboo act. Theological definitions of good are as varied as cultural definitions, and then some, for culture is affected by and affects religion, and there are more distinct religious beliefs than there are distinct cultures. It is impossible, then, for one work to be absolute in its delineation of good and evil, law and chaos, and the middle ground between (if such can exist in reality). This does not, however, mean that "good” can be anything desired,and anyone who tells you, in effect, that good means stupid, deserves a derisive jeer (at least).
The Sage Advice column in issue #36 of DRAGON™ magazine (April 1980) contained some interesting questions and answers regarding “good” as related to paladins and rangers. Let us examine these in light of the foregoing:
A player with a paladin character asked if this character could “put someone to death (who) is severely scarred and doesn't want to live.” Although the reply given in Sage Advice was a strong negative, it is suggested here that the actual truth of the matter might lie somewhere else. The player does not give the name of the deity served by the paladin. This is the key to lawful good behavior in AD&D terms. Remember that “good” can be related to reality often, but not always. It might also relate to good as perceived in the past, actual or mythical. In the latter case, a paladin could well force conversion at sword point, and, once acceptance of "the true way" was expressed, dispatch the new convert on the spot. This assures that the prodigal will not return to the former evil ways, sends the now-saved spirit on to a better place, and incidentally rids the world of a potential troublemaker. Such actions are "good,” in these ways:
1.   Evil is abridged (by at least one creature).
2.   Good has gained a convert.
3.   The convert now has hope for rewards (rather than torment) in the afterlife.
4.   The good populace is safer (by a factor of at least 1).
It is therefore possible for a paladin to, in fact, actually perform a "mercy killing” such as the inquiring player asked about, provided the tenets of his or her theology permitted it. While unlikely, it is possible.
Another case in point was that of a player with a paladin character who wishes to marry and begin a lineage. Again, our Sage Advice suggests a negative. While many religions forbid wedlock and demand celibacy, this is by no means universal. The key is again the deity served, of course. DMs not using particular, specific deities will harken back to the origin of the term “paladin" and realize that celibacy is not a condition of that sort of paladin-hood. Also, although the Roman Catholic church demands celibacy of its priests, the doctrines of Judeo- Christianity hold matrimony and the bearing and rearing of children as holy and proper, i.e. “good." So unless a particular deity demands celibacy of its fighter-minions, there is no conceivable reason for a paladin not to marry and raise children. This is a matter for common sense — and the DM, who, if he or she is not arbitrary, will probably agree with the spirit of the game and allow marriage and children. (This must be a long- range campaign, or else its participants are preoccupied with unusual aspects of the game. No matter....)
The third inquiry concerned a ranger character. The writer claimed that his or her DM combined with a lawful good ranger to insist that a wounded wyvern was to be protected, not slain, unless it attacked the party. Here is a classic case of players being told that (lawful) good equates with stupidity. To assert that a man-killing monster with evil tendencies should be protected by a lawful good ranger is pure insanity. How many lives does this risk immediately? How many victims are condemned to death later? In short, this is not “good” by any accepted standards! It is much the same as sparing a rabid dog or a rogue elephant or a man-eating tiger.
If good is carefully considered, compared to and contrasted with evil, then common sense will enable most, if not all, questions regarding the behavior of paladins and rangers to be settled on the spot. Consideration of the character’s deity is of principal merit after arriving at an understanding of good. Thereafter, campaign "world" moral and ethical teachings on a cultural basis must rule. These concepts might be drawn from myth or some other source. What matters is that a definition of “good” is established upon intelligent and reasonable grounds. Viewpoints do differ, so absolutes (especially in a game) are both undesirable and impossible.
根据年龄、文化和神学训练的不同,对善的看法也不同。一个孩子看不出父母受到的惩罚有什么好处——让我们说玩火柴。文化对善的定义可能是在吃完东西后大声打嗝,或者是杀死任何一个执行某种禁忌行为的人。对善的神学定义就像文化的定义一样多种多样,有些文化的定义受到宗教的影响和影响,而宗教信仰的不同之处在于不同的文化。那么,一个作品在描绘善与恶、法律与混乱、以及(如果存在于现实中)之间的中间地带,是不可能的。然而,这并不意味着“好”可以是任何想要的东西,任何告诉你的人,实际上,这句话的意思是“好”是愚蠢的,应该得到嘲弄的嘲笑(至少)。
龙杂志第36期(1980年4月)的圣哲咨询专栏中包含了一些与圣骑士和游骑兵有关的有趣问题和答案。让我们根据前面的情况来研究这些:
一个有圣骑士角色的玩家问这个角色是否可以“让一个人死亡(谁)被严重的伤害并且不想活下去。”尽管在明智的建议中给出的答复是一个强烈的否定,但在这里我们可以提出,这个问题的实际真相可能在别的地方。玩家不会给出圣骑士所提供的神的名字。这是在AD&D条款中合法良好行为的关键。记住,“好”往往与现实有关,但并非总是如此。它也可能与过去所感知到的,真实的或虚构的事物有关。在后一种情况下,圣骑士可以很好地在剑点进行转换,一旦接受了“真实的方式”,就会立即派遣新的皈依者。这就保证了浪子不会回到从前的邪恶方式,把现在被拯救的精神带到一个更好的地方,顺便让世界上一个潜在的麻烦制造者。这样的行动是“好”的:
1。邪恶被(至少有一种生物)所限制。
2。Good已经取得了转变。
3号。现在皈依者希望在来世得到奖励(而不是折磨)
4。好的民众更安全(至少有1个因素)。
因此,一个圣骑士实际上可以执行“安乐死”,如询问玩家所要求的那样,前提是他或她的神学的信条允许这样做。虽然不太可能,但还是有可能的。
另一个例子是一个具有圣骑士角色的玩家,他想要结婚并开始一个血统。同样,我们的明智建议是否定的。尽管许多宗教禁止结婚并要求独身,但这绝不是普遍的。当然,关键是神的服务。DMs不使用特殊的,具体的神灵将会回到“圣骑士”这个词的起源,并意识到独身不是那种圣骑士的状态。此外,尽管罗马天主教会要求其牧师的“西行”,但“犹太基督教”的教义——基督教将婚姻和养育子女视为“神圣的”,即“善”。因此,除非某个特定的神灵要求其战斗仆从的独身,否则就没有可能的理由让圣骑士不结婚生子。这是一个常识问题,而DM,如果他或她不是任意的,可能会同意游戏的精神,允许婚姻和孩子。(这一定是一场漫长的战役,否则它的参与者就会全神贯注于游戏的不同寻常的方面。不管....)
第三个询问涉及一个游侠角色。作者声称,他或她的DM和一个合法的护林员一起,坚持认为受伤的维恩是受到保护的,而不是被杀死的,除非它袭击了当事人。这是一个典型的例子,玩家被告知(合法的)好等同于愚蠢。断言一个有邪恶倾向的杀人怪物应该受到一个合法的护林员的保护是纯粹的精神错乱。有多少人会立刻冒这个险?有多少受害者会被判处死刑?简而言之,这不是任何公认的标准的“好”!这就像一只狂犬,一只凶猛的大象,或是一只吃人的老虎。
如果仔细考虑了好,与之对比并与邪恶形成对比,那么常识将使大部分,即使不是全部的,关于圣骑士和游骑兵的行为的问题都能得到解决。考虑到这个角色的神祗是在了解了善的基础上才得到的。此后,在文化基础上的“世界”道德和伦理教育必须规范。这些概念可能来自神话或其他来源。重要的是,“善”的定义是建立在理智和合理的基础上的。观点是不同的,所以绝对(尤其是在游戏中)是不可取的,也是不可能的。
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

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Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #33 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:13:13 »
机翻第十六弹

JUNE 1979: #26
BLUEPRINT
FOR A liCH
by Lenard Lakofka
Liches are high-level clerics or magic-users who have become very special undead. Before becoming a lich, the cleric or magic-user must have been at least 14th level in life, although 18th level is most common. Once a lich is created, it might drop in level, but below 10th level one cannot exist.
Preparation for lichdom occurs while the figure is still alive and must be completed before his first "death.” If he dies somewhere along the line and is resurrected, then he must start all over again.
The would-be lich needs these spells: Magic Jar, Trap the Soul, and Enchant an Item, plus a special potion and something to “jar” into.
The item into which the lich will "jar” is prepared by having Enchant an Item cast upon it. The item cannot be of the common variety, but must be of high quality, solid, and of at least 2,000gp in value. The item must make a saving throw as if it were the person casting the spell. (A cleric would have to have the spells Enchant an Item and Magic Jar cast for him, and it is the contracted magic-user’s level that would be used for the saving throw.) The item can contain prior magics, but wooden items are not acceptable.
If the item is then soul-receptive, the prepared candidate for lichdom will cast (or have cast) Magic Jar on it and enter the item. As soon as he enters the jar he will lose a level — and the corresponding hit points — at once. The hit points and his soul are now stored in the jar. He then must return to his own body and must rest for 2-7 days. The ordeal is so demanding that his top three levels of spells are erased and will not come back (through reading/prayer) until the rest period is over.
The next time the character dies, regardless of circumstances, he will go into the jar, no matter how far away and no matter what the obstacles (including Cubes of Force, Prismatic Spheres, lead boxes, etc.). To get out again, the magic- user/cleric must have his (or another’s) recently dead body within 90 feet of the jar. The body can be that of any recently killed creature, from a mouse to a ki-rin. The corpse must fail its saving throw vs. magic to be possessed. The saving throw is that of a one-half hit die figure for a normal man, animal, small monster, etc., regardless of alignment, if the figure had three or fewer hit dice in life. If it had four or more hit dice, it gains one of the following saving throws, according to alignment: lawful good, chaotic good or neutral good — normal saving throw as in life; lawful neutral, chaotic neutral or true neutral — saving throw as in life, but at -3; lawful evil — saving throw at -4; neutral evil — saving throw at -5; and chaotic evil — saving throw at -6. The corpse can be dead no longer than 30 days. If it makes its saving throw, it will never receive the lich. The magic- user/cleric’s own corpse can be dead any length of time and is at -10 to receive him. He may attempt to enter his own corpse once each week until he succeeds.
If the lich enters another's corpse, he will have the limited abilities of the corpse when it comes to physical strength. Intelligence and wisdom will be his own, regardless of what the corpse had. It can have no more than four hit dice, and will behave as a wight, but has no energy-draining ability. If the corpse could cast spells in life, then the possessed corpse may also do so — up to, but not beyond, the 4th level of spell ability. The wightish body will have telepathic abilities if the body it came from could speak when it was alive.
In the wightish body, the lich will seek his own body and transport it to the location of the jar. Destruction of his own body is possible only via the spell Disintegrate, and the body gets a normal saving throw vs. the spell. Dismemberment or burning of the body will not destroy it; the remains of the corpse will radiate an unlimited range Locate Object spell. Naturally, it may be difficult for the lich to obtain all these pieces/ashes, but that is another story. If and when the wightish body finds the remains of the lich’s original body, it will eat them and after one week will metamorphose into a humanoid body similar to the lich’s original body. Once the lich is back in his own body he will have the spells he had in life and never has to read/pray for them again. In fact he cannot, except once to “fill up” his spell levels. As a lich, he can never gain levels, use scrolls, or use magic items that require the touch of a living being.
Liches是高级神职人员或魔法使用者,他们已经变成了非常特殊的不死生物。在成为巫妖之前,牧师或魔法使用者的生命至少是14级,尽管18级是最常见的。一旦创建了一个lich,它可能会下降,但是在第10层之下就不可能存在。
当这个人物还活着的时候,他的准备工作就会发生,并且必须在他的第一个“死亡”之前完成。如果他死在某个地方,然后复活了,那么他必须从头再来。
潜在的巫妖需要这些咒语:魔法罐子,陷阱灵魂,并附魔物品,再加上一种特殊药剂和一些“罐子”。
巫妖将会“jar”的物品是通过在它上面施放一个物品来准备的。该产品不能是普通品种,但必须具有高质量、固体和至少2000 gp的价值。这个项目必须要有一个豁免的投掷,就好像是那个施法的人。(一名牧师必须为他施魔法,并为他施放一种魔法罐子,而这正是他所使用的魔法-用户级别,用于拯救生命。)这个项目可以包含先前的魔法,但是木制品是不能接受的。
如果这个项目是灵魂接受的,准备好的lichdom的候选人将会在它上面浇上(或已经浇铸)魔法Jar,然后进入这个项目。一旦他进入瓶子,他将立即失去一个等级和相应的命中点。击中点和他的灵魂现在储存在罐子里。然后他必须回到自己的身体,必须休息2 - 7天。这一严酷的考验要求他的前三次法术都被抹去了,直到剩下的时间结束,他才会回来(通过阅读和祈祷)。
下一次,无论环境如何,角色死亡时,不管有多远,不管遇到什么障碍(包括力量方块、棱镜球、铅盒等),他都会进入罐子。为了再次出去,魔法用户/牧师必须把他(或其他人的)最近的尸体放在罐子的90英尺内。身体可以是最近被杀死的生物,从老鼠到基林。死尸必须通过它的豁免检定和魔法才能被占有。拯救球是一个正常的人,动物,小怪物等的半命中死亡数字,无论队列如何,如果这个数字有3个或更少的命中骰子。如果它有4个或更多的命中骰子,它会得到以下的一个节省的投掷,根据对齐:合法的好,混乱的好或中立的好-正常的救球和在生活中一样;合法的中立、混乱的中立或真正的中立的豁免,如在生命中,但在- 3;合法的邪恶-豁免投- 4;中性邪恶-豁免投掷- 5;和混乱的邪恶-豁免投掷在- 6。尸体的死亡时间不超过30天。如果它能节省时间,它就永远不会收到巫妖。魔法使用者/牧师自己的尸体可以在任何一段时间内死去,并在- 10时接收他。他可能会试图每周进入他自己的尸体,直到他成功。
如果巫妖进入另一个人的尸体,他将会有有限的能力的尸体当它的体力。不管尸体有什么,智慧和智慧都是他自己的。它可以有不超过4个的命中骰子,并且将表现为一个生物,但是没有能量消耗能力。如果尸体可以施法,那么被附身的尸体也可以这样做,但不能超过第四等级的法术能力。如果一个人的身体在活着的时候能说话,他的身体就会有心灵感应能力。
在这个有智慧的身体里,巫妖会寻找他自己的身体并把它运送到罐子的位置。只有通过法术分解才能摧毁他自己的身体,身体得到一个正常的豁免和法术。肢解或焚烧身体不会破坏身体;尸体的残骸将会辐射出一个无限的定位目标。当然,这对巫妖来说可能很难获得所有这些碎片,但这是另一个故事。如果和当这个wightish的身体发现了巫妖的原始身体的残骸,它会吃掉它们,一周之后会变成类似于巫妖原来身体的人形身体。一旦巫妖回到他自己的身体,他将拥有他在生命中所拥有的法术,再也不用为他们祈祷了。事实上他不能,除了一次“填补”他的法术等级。作为一个巫妖,他永远无法获得等级,使用卷轴,或者使用魔法物品,需要一个活人的触摸。
Each time the lich returns his life force to the jar, it always costs him a level. When he drops to 10th level, any subsequent return to the jar destroys the lich. The lich will try to teleport back to the jar, however, before he is “killed" (that is, before he goes to zero hit points). If he does go to zero points, he is destroyed forever! If he has the spell Teleport, the lich can transport his body, also, but just his “life force” goes back into the jar. (He does not, however, need the spell Teleport to get just his life force back to the jar, although if he loses his body in this manner, he must start the search for it all over again.)
If his body is disintegrated then the lich can only be a wightish body unless he can find someone to cast a Wish for him to get the body back together again. The jar must be on the Prime Material, the Negative Material, or the Positive Material Plane and of course he must have a means of gaining access to the appropriate plane in the first place.
A living person will never radiate anything that will indicate he is prepared for lichdom. No Charm will ever make him tell this fact or where his jar is hidden! However, a Charm can make him tell whafthejar is. In like manner, Locate an Object will not find a lich's jar unless a deity-rank figure is willing to cast the spell and its range is limited to 100 miles in only one plane!
The lich must find a means of continual access if he places his jar on another plane. Hirelings can be charmed (paid) to keep a supply of dead (less than 30 days) bodies at his disposal, but that is risky. A jar hidden too well may never offer a corpse for him to enter. A lich may elect to commit suicide to save himself a lot of trouble later on.
Preparing the body of the living figure is done via a potion. The potion is difficult to make and very time-consuming. It requires these items:
2 pinches of pure arsenic
1 pinch of belladonna
1 measure of fresh phase spider venom (less than 30 days old)
1 measure of fresh wyvern venom (less than 60 days old)
The blood of a humanoid killed by a phase spider
The blood of a humanoid killed by a mixture of arsenic and belladonna
The heart of a humanoid killed by wyvern venom
1 quart of blood from a vampire or a person infected with vampirism
The ground-up reproductive glands of 7 giant moths (dead for less than 60 days)
The items are mixed in the order given by the light of a full moon. When the figure drinks the potion (all of it at once), the following things may occur:
01-10 No effect whatsoever, other than all body hair falling out; start over!
11-40 Fall into coma for 2-7 days. The potion works.
41-70 Feebleminded until dispelled by Dispel Magic. Each attempt to remove the feeblemind has a 10% chance to kill instead if it fails. The potion works. 71-90 Paralyzed for 4-14 days. 30% chance that permanent loss of 1 -6 dexterity points will result. The potion works.
91-96 Permanently deaf, dumb or blind. Only a Wish can regain the sense. The potion works.
97-00 Dead. Start over... if you can be resurrected.
每次当巫妖把他的生命力归还给罐子时,它总是给他一个等级。当他跌到第10级时,任何随后的返回到罐子都摧毁了巫妖。然而,在他被“杀死”之前,巫妖会试图把它传送回罐子(也就是说,在他到达零点之前)。如果他真的去零点,他将永远被毁灭!如果他有心灵传送的魔法,他的身体也会被传送,但是他的“生命力量”又回到了罐子里。(然而,他并不需要“心灵传送”将他的生命力量带回罐子,尽管如果他以这种方式失去身体,他必须重新开始寻找它。)
如果他的身体被分解了,那么他只能是一个很有魅力的身体,除非他能找到一个人来给他一个愿望,让他把身体重新组合起来。罐子必须是在主要材料,负材料,或正材料平面上,当然他必须有一种方法首先进入合适的平面。
一个活着的人永远不会散发出任何能表明他为利克多姆准备的东西。没有任何魅力能让他说出这个事实或者他的罐子藏在哪里!然而,魅力可以让他告诉whafthejar。以类似的方式,定位一个物体将不会找到一个巫妖的罐子除非一个能力等级的数字愿意施展法术并且它的范围限制在100英里的只有一架飞机!
如果他把他的罐子放在另一架飞机上,他必须找到一种持续的途径。雇佣兵可以在他手下的尸体上保留一份尸体(少于30天),但这是有风险的。藏得太深的罐子可能永远不会给他一具尸体。巫妖可能会选择自杀以避免以后的麻烦。
通过一种药剂来做人体的身体准备。这种药剂很难制造而且很费时间。它需要这些项目:
2种纯砷
1撮颠茄
1 .新鲜蜘蛛毒液的测量方法(不到30天)
1种新鲜的wyvern毒液(不到60天)
被相位蜘蛛杀死的人形血
一种由砷和颠茄混合而成的类人血
被怀尔恩毒液杀死的人的心脏
1夸脱的血来自一个吸血鬼或一个感染了吸血鬼的人
7个巨型蛾子的地面生殖腺(死亡时间少于60天)
在满月的光下,这些物品是混合在一起的。当这个人喝了药水(所有的药水立刻),以下的事情可能会发生:
01- 10无效果,除全身毛发脱落外;重新开始!
11- 40昏迷2 - 7天。药剂的作品。
41- 70的意志薄弱,直到驱散魔法。每一次尝试去除掉弱者都有10%的机会去杀死,如果失败了。药剂的作品。71- 90瘫痪4 - 14天。有30%的几率永久丧失1 - 6个敏捷点。药剂的作品。
91- 96永远聋、哑或瞎。只有愿望才能重获理智。药剂的作品。
97 - 00死了。重新开始…如果你能复活。


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Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #34 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:14:10 »
机翻第十七弹

The politics of Hell
by Alexander von Thorn
(Author’s note: The following article cannot be considered the official doctrine of either the ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® game or the Roman Catholic Church. However, it is compatible with the AD&D® rules, and except for the parts about Asmodeus it is not in conflict with works on demonology as generally accepted by Catholic exorcists, thus enjoying tacit approval by the Church. However, this article does not have a nihil obstat: Much of it is original, and it approaches the subject from a different angle than a religious tract would, and should not be considered as such. The rise of Asmodeus is not documented in any major text on demonology, but very little original work on the subject has been done since the Middle Ages, so it is possible that the situation has changed. Perhaps Mr. Gygax has more accurate sources of information...)
Once upon a time, there were no devils. Only God and the angels were in heaven. (The term God is used to refer to the Creator of the Universe. He is called Yahweh by some, Allah by others, and is known by many other names.) The most powerful, most intelligent, and most beautiful of all the angels was called Satan. He was given these traits by God in order to carry out the most arduous task among all the angels — that of testing the merit of mortal men.
Satan used temptation and suffering to try to get men to choose evil instead of good. He usually succeeded in his work, because most men had something (or someone) which they held near and dear, over and above considerations of ethics, and so Satan came to hold the majority of mankind in contempt.
Satan was not happy in his work, because he had to cause the downfall of many men who otherwise would have led relatively blameless lives. Sometimes he had to cause great suffering in the lives of good men, like Job, which he didn’t like to do, either. Job had done nothing to deserve the problems that Satan gave him, and Satan came to feel sorry for Job and those like him.
Satan felt that God was being unfair. In coming to the conclusion, he valued his own judgement above the wisdom of God. His thinking gradually came around to the idea that there were better ways of organizing the universe than the way God had set it up. He came to think that he could do a better job than God. Satan discussed his ideas with other angels, and many agreed that he had some valid points.
Eventually, Satan challenged God, and many angels supported him. But God and his supporters were victorious, and Satan and his supporters were sentenced to hell for all eternity unless they repented their sins. Satan responded, “Better to rule in hell than to serve in heaven!” With that, he passed to hell in a brilliant flash, and from that time on his followers, human and supernatural, gave him the name of Lucifer, "Prince of Light,” and the star of the morning was named for him. The French claim that when Satan passed through the earthly plane en route from heaven to hell, he went down through the island of Mont St. Michel, off the coast of Brittany.
Some scholars theorize that the influence of the devils, who were now actively working against God and good, was the reason that God sent his son to Earth, although that belief is not universal among Christians. However, parts of the Book of Isaiah which refer to a Messiah are thought to have been written during the Babylonian exile of the Jews, which happened shortly after the fall of the devils (at least as far as this writer can figure out). It is also said that God misses Satan, and that He hopes that he will repent and ask God’s forgiveness, which of course He will grant to any of the fallen angels (although God may require some service to be performed, in order to test their rededication to the cause of righteousness. It is thought that it is this possibility that holds many of the devils back from repentance. Whatever the reason, no devil has ever repented).
And so, Satan became the lord of hell. All the devils worked for the damnation of men and the promulgation of evil and suffering. Satan found it ridiculously easy to accomplish anything he wanted, using his talents of temptation and suffering. The mere threat of his immense power kept the other devils in line. A group of humans who were obsessed by power, or evil, or both, developed a cult around Satan, and they set up a tight hierarchy in order to pursue their goals through evil. Even some of the illiterate peasants occasionally said a prayer to Satan when God didn't seem to answer their prayers.
(作者注:以下的文章不能被认为是高级地下城与龙游戏或罗马天主教会的官方教条。然而,它与ad&d的规则是一致的,除了关于阿摩德斯的部分,它与被天主教驱魔者普遍接受的魔鬼学著作并没有冲突,因此得到了教会的默许。然而,这篇文章并没有一个虚无的障碍:它的大部分是原创的,而且它从一个不同的角度接近主题,而不是一个宗教的领域,并且不应该被认为是这样。Asmodeus的兴起并没有在任何关于恶魔学的主要文献中被记录下来,但是从中世纪开始就很少有关于这个主题的原创作品,所以情况可能已经发生了变化。也许Gygax先生有更准确的信息来源……
从前,没有魔鬼。只有上帝和天使在天堂。(“上帝”这个词用来指代宇宙的创造者。他被一些人称为“耶和华”,被其他人称为“安拉”,并被许多其他的名字所知。最强大、最聪明、最美丽的天使被称为撒旦。上帝赋予他这些特质,以便在所有的天使中执行最艰巨的任务——检验凡人的价值。
撒旦用诱惑和痛苦试图让人们选择邪恶而不是善良。他的工作通常都是成功的,因为大多数人都有自己的东西(或某人),而这些东西是他们所珍视的,而不是道德上的考虑,因此,撒旦开始蔑视大多数人。
撒旦在他的工作中并不快乐,因为他必须导致许多人的堕落,否则他们就会过着相对清白的生活。有时他不得不在好人的生活中造成巨大的痛苦,比如工作,他也不喜欢这样做。约伯没有做任何事,不应该受撒旦给他的麻烦,撒旦开始为工作和像他这样的人感到难过。
撒旦觉得上帝是不公平的。在得出结论的时候,他认为自己的判断高于上帝的智慧。他的思想逐渐产生了这样一种想法,即有更好的方式来组织宇宙,而不是上帝安排的方式。他开始认为自己能比上帝做得更好。撒旦与其他天使讨论他的想法,许多人同意他有一些有效的观点。
最终,撒旦挑战了上帝,许多天使支持他。但是,上帝和他的支持者们都取得了胜利,而撒旦和他的支持者们却被判了地狱,除非他们忏悔他们的罪恶。撒但回答说:“在地狱里掌权,胜过在天上事奉。”于是,他灵光一闪,从他的追随者、人类和超自然的人那里,给他起名叫路西法的名字,“光明之王”,而晨星就是以他的名字命名的。法国人声称,当撒旦从天堂到地狱的途中经过尘世的飞机时,他穿过了布列塔尼海岸外的蒙特圣米歇尔岛(Mont st . Michel)。
一些学者认为,魔鬼的影响是上帝把他的儿子送到地球上的原因,尽管这种信仰在基督徒中并不普遍。然而,《以赛亚书》中提到的弥赛亚被认为是在巴比伦的犹太人流放期间写的,这是在魔鬼陷落后不久发生的(至少在这位作家所能指出的范围内)。也有人说上帝想念撒但,他希望他会悔改,祈求上帝的宽恕,当然他会赐给所有堕落的天使(虽然上帝可能需要一些服务来执行,以测试他们对正义事业的重新献身)。人们认为这种可能性会让很多恶魔不悔改。无论什么原因,没有一个魔鬼曾经后悔过)。
所以,撒旦成为了地狱之主。所有的魔鬼都为人类的罪恶和邪恶和痛苦的传播而工作。撒旦发现,用他的诱惑和苦难的天赋来实现他想要的一切都是非常容易的。他那巨大的力量的威胁使其他的恶魔们保持了一致。一群被权力,邪恶,或两者纠缠的人,在撒旦周围形成了一种崇拜,他们建立了严密的等级制度,以通过邪恶追求他们的目标。甚至连一些不识字的农民偶尔也会向撒旦祈祷,因为上帝似乎并没有回应他们的祈祷。
The forces of evil were strong, and flourished in the ignorance of the Dark Ages. Satan schemed and plotted, for he believed that he had simply been outmaneuvered by the forces of good because he had failed to plan his first assault properly. He felt that if he took the time to develop a strategy, to take advantage of his own strengths and minimize his forces’ weaknesses, while capitalizing on the weaknesses and neutralizing the strengths of the enemy, then he had a good shot at winning the final conflict.
But Satan was an arbitrary ruler. He took it for granted that all the fallen angels would follow him without question. However, some of the other devils were also proud, and they did not agree with all the orders Satan gave, just as they had (like Satan) disagreed with God. Beelzebub, in particular, felt that he and the other devils should have more of a free hand in encouraging acts of evil, and more of a say in matters of general policy in hell. Beelzebub discussed this with the other important devils — Adramelech, Astaroth, Moloch, Nergal, Amaimon, Belphegor, and many others — and most agreed with Beelzebub, after promises of more power and freedom under a new order. The others were noncommittal, for they were afraid of the wrath of Satan and would not speak against Satan even in private, although they did not reveal Beelzebub’s plan to Satan. Those devils who supported Beelzebub would once in a while question a minor order from Satan, or neglect to perform a trivial task. When these rebels were discovered, Satan sent Belial, his personal lieutenant, to deal with them. Belial became hated by the other devils and at the same time grew in the esteem of Satan.
Eventually, Beelzebub challenged Satan, and when it was seen that more of the powerful devils supported Beelzebub, the other devils flocked to his cause, leaving only Belial on the side of Satan.
So Satan and Belial became exiles from hell, forced to find other places within the multiverse to hide out and make their abode, while Beelzebub became the new lord of hell. With Belial gone, Moloch became the new supreme commander of the armies of hell, and Asmodeus became the devil in charge of politicians and bureaucrats, while Adramelech became second in the overall hierarchy after Beelzebub, serving as chancellor of hell, which was the equivalent of a prime minister of a government of which Beelzebub was the president or king.
However, the armies of hell remained secretly loyal to Belial, and they helped him whenever they had the opportunity to do so without being caught. Also, Belial kept his old contacts, and retained a great deal of his influence with politicians and bureaucrats for some time. Satan, for his part, remained very powerful, because the covens remained faithful to him. In fact, most people (including the majority of the clergy) were not aware of the change in the leadership of hell. To this day, when people think of “The Devil,” they think of Satan, and if the name of any devil is mentioned in a Catholic sacramental ritual, it is his (e.g., when the celebrant asks, “Do you reject Satan?" etc.).
Of course, the exorcists and demonologists knew about the change, and after the fall of Satan his name was left out of the hierarchies compiled by them. The time of this event is not certain, but evidence suggests that it probably occcurred at about the time of the Renaissance. Indeed, it may have been partially responsible for the Renaissance, because Satan had tried to keep mankind steeped in mystery and ignorance, while Beelzebub thought that new areas of knowledge could lead to new forms of evil. During the Middle Ages, warfare had been a very personal affair. Lords battled over matters of vengeance, or family honor, or simple greed. They were followed by loyal men-at-arms and their bows, and everyone went home at harvest time. Then came the rise of national empires, and men were drafted into armies in the names of kings they’d never seen, to fight with guns and cannons over matters of politics, or religion, or just strategic objectives. Arbitrary and capricious monarchs gave way to systematic dictatorships of terror. Ignorance and superstition were replaced by science and technology totally devoid of morality. Of course, things were not so bad in every respect, but Beelzebub does seem to have made his point.
邪恶的力量是强大的,在对黑暗时代的无知中蓬勃发展。撒旦阴谋策划,因为他相信他只是被善良的力量打败了,因为他没有正确地计划他的第一次进攻。他认为,如果他花时间制定战略,利用自己的优势,最大程度地减少敌人的弱点,同时利用弱点,中和敌人的优势,那么他就能在最后的冲突中取胜。
但撒旦是专制的统治者。他想当然地认为所有堕落的天使都会毫无疑问地跟着他。然而,另一些恶魔也很骄傲,他们不同意撒旦给的所有命令,就像他们(像撒旦)不同意上帝一样。特别是贝西卜,他觉得他和其他恶魔应该有更多的自由来鼓励邪恶的行为,在地狱的一般政策中也有更多的发言权。Beelzebub和其他重要的恶魔们讨论了这个问题——Adramelech,Astaroth,Moloch,Nergal,Amaimon,Belphegor,还有许多其他的人——大多数人都认同Beelzebub,因为他在新秩序下承诺了更多的权力和自由。其余的人都不确定,因为他们怕撒旦的愤怒,也不愿私下跟撒旦说话,虽然他们没有向撒旦揭露别西布的计划。那些支持恶魔的恶魔曾一度质疑撒旦的小命令,或者忽视了执行一个微不足道的任务。当这些叛乱者被发现时,撒旦派遣他的私人副手贝利亚尔来对付他们。伯利兹被另一个恶魔所憎恨同时也受到撒旦的尊敬。
最终,Beelzebub对撒旦发起了挑战,当看到更多的强大的恶魔支持贝西卜的时候,其他的恶魔们纷纷涌向他的事业,只留下了撒旦的一面。
于是撒旦和彼列尔从地狱中被放逐,被迫在多元宇宙中寻找其他地方躲藏,并使他们的住所,而彼尔西卜成为地狱的新主人。随着恶魔的消失,莫洛奇成为了地狱军队的新最高指挥官,阿斯莫德斯成为了掌管政治家和官僚的恶魔,而在他担任地狱大臣之后,阿德米勒在整个等级体系中位居第二,这就相当于一个政府的总理,他是总统或国王。
然而,地狱军队仍然秘密地忠于彼列尔,只要有机会,他们就会帮助他,而不会被抓住。此外,贝利保留了他的旧联系人,并在一段时间内保留了他对政客和官僚的极大影响力。但撒旦仍然很强大,因为他的契约仍然忠实于他。事实上,大多数人(包括大多数神职人员)都没有意识到地狱的领导权的变化。时至今日,当人们想到“魔鬼”时,他们会想起撒旦,如果在天主教的圣典仪式中提到了魔鬼的名字,那就是他的(例如,当司仪人问:“你拒绝撒旦吗?””等等)。
当然,驱魔师和恶魔学家知道这一变化,在撒旦堕落之后,他的名字被排除在他们编制的等级之外。这一事件的时间并不确定,但有证据表明,这一事件可能在文艺复兴时期出现。事实上,这可能是对文艺复兴的部分原因,因为撒旦曾试图让人类沉浸在神秘和无知中,而比尔西卜则认为新的知识领域可能会带来新的邪恶。在中世纪,战争是一件非常私人的事情。贵族们为复仇、家族荣誉或单纯的贪婪而战。他们被忠实的士兵和弓箭跟随,每个人都在收获时回家。然后是国家帝国的崛起,人们以他们从未见过的国王的名义被征召入伍,用大炮和大炮来对付政治、宗教或战略目标。任意而反复无常的君主都屈服于系统的独裁统治。无知和迷信被完全缺乏道德的科学和技术所取代。当然,从各方面来说,事情都没有那么糟,但毕泽布比似乎已经表明了他的观点。
However, Beelzebub had difficulty controlling the devils. He could not order them about the way Satan had, because he had gained power by promising more freedom of action. In fact, some of the more powerful arch-devils told him (in a roundabout way) that his authority would be in jeopardy if he tried to assert himself too much. So, the only means that Beelzebub could use to get things done in hell were by persuasion or by doing favors for the devils. Needless to say, these were not enough, even if Beelzebub had had the time to talk to all the arch-devils in order to explain why things had to be done, or to do all the errands that he had to do to get things done. The devils ended up aiding humans against each other, with little coordination, so that they fell into disrepute because they could not fulfill their conflicting promises. Beelzebub’s attempts to restore order were futile because the more powerful arch-devils would not agree with Beelzebub on how to resolve some of the more important conflicts. In fact, some of them preferred to let the situation deteriorate so that they could increase their personal power.
Also, the spirit of anticlericism and atheism that the devils had succeeded in creating worked against them; people rejected the idea of devils, writing them off as mere superstition, when they rejected the idea of a God.
Many devils were dissatisfied with the rule of Beelzebub, but there was no apparent successor. Astaroth, the next most powerful devil, was happy in his role as treasurer of hell, and he almost always achieved his objectives without needing the mantle of authority that came with being lord of hell. Adramelech was not a very personally strong devil, and he was rather ineffectual when things were as disorganized as they were. Dispater and Geryon were strong, but they lacked the necessary talents of leadership. Most of the other arch-devils were satisfied to increase their power at the expense of Beelzebub's, because they thought that the position of lord of hell was a thankless job, and that if someone with less sheer power than Beelzebub held the post, hell would be worse off than it already was.
However, one figure — Asmodeus, one of the lesser archdevils — felt differently. He was like an administrative assistant to Amaimon, the devil in command of the largest of the four armies of hell. Asmodeus took care of non-military matters for Amaimon. He was also the devil in charge of politicians and bureaucrats, as noted previously, and with the rise of democracies in the 18th and 19th centuries, the influence of Asmodeus became even greater.
Asmodeus was a master of deception, and he had great skill in finding things out (especially concealed treasures), which were invaluable traits in dealing with politicians. Asmodeus was therefore well known in hell, and he was well informed on important matters in hell, but most devils saw him as a minor functionary in the upper echelons of hell. However, the skills of diplomacy and negotiation which he had developed in order to better help human politicians were very useful in hell, because of the disorganized, uncertain situation there. More and more often, Asmodeus found himself mediating disputes and helping to form a consensus among the devils on important policy matters. The devils came to respect his judgement, and set him to organizing some of the more important projects.
With this visible support to reinforce him, Asmodeus decided that his administrative skills were just what hell needed. So he approached some of the more powerful devils and suggested that he might make a better ruler than Beelzebub. Support for his plan in the upper echelon was lukewarm at first, so he sweetened the proposal by doing a number of one-shot favors, or promising to do something that individual devils especially wanted. After a while, many devils came to side with him, but a significant number still thought that Beelzebub’s power was necessary to maintain any semblance of order in hell.
Asmodeus found a solution: He promised to keep Beelzebub in hell at the top of the hierarchy, second only to himself. The devils agreed to support him so long as they did not have to resort to violence, promising in return that they would, if necessary, refuse to obey Beelzebub’s orders in a show of solidarity. Even Astaroth agreed that Asmodeus would probably be a more capable ruler.
然而,Beelzebub很难控制魔鬼。他不能像撒旦那样命令他们,因为他通过承诺更多的行动自由而获得了权力。事实上,一些更强大的大恶魔(以一种迂回的方式)告诉他,如果他试图表现得过于强势,他的权威就会岌岌可危。所以,唯一的意思是,魔王可以通过说服或帮助魔鬼来完成地狱的事情。不用说,这些是不够的,即使是Beelzebub有时间和所有的大恶魔交谈,来解释为什么事情必须要做,或者做所有他必须做的事情来完成任务。恶魔最终帮助人类互相对抗,几乎没有协调,因此他们因为无法履行彼此矛盾的承诺而声名狼藉。Beelzebub试图恢复秩序的努力是徒劳的,因为更强大的“恶魔”们不会同意Beelzebub在解决一些更重要的冲突方面的问题。事实上,他们中的一些人宁愿让局势恶化,这样他们就可以增加他们的个人权力。
而且,魔鬼已经成功地创造了反教主义和无神论的精神;人们拒绝了魔鬼的想法,把他们当作迷信,拒绝了上帝的想法。
许多恶魔不满意Beelzebub的统治,但是没有明显的继承者。阿斯塔罗斯,下一个最强大的恶魔,在他作为地狱司库的角色中很快乐,他几乎总是能实现他的目标,而不需要作为地狱之王的权威的外衣。阿达米勒并不是一个非常有个性的魔鬼,当事情像他们那样杂乱无章时,他是相当无能的。但他们缺乏必要的领导才能。大多数其他的大恶魔都满足于增加他们的权力,而牺牲了魔王的地位,因为他们认为地狱领主的地位是一份吃力不讨好的工作,如果一个人的权力比魔王少,那他的处境将会比现在更糟。
然而,有一个人物——阿斯莫德斯,一个较小的大恶魔——却有不同的感觉。他就像一个恶魔,掌管着地狱四军中最大的一个。阿斯莫德斯负责Amaimon的非军事事宜。他也曾是政客和官僚的魔鬼,正如之前所指出的,随着18和19世纪民主的兴起,阿斯莫德斯的影响力变得更大。
Asmodeus是一名欺骗大师,他在寻找东西方面有很大的技巧(尤其是隐藏的宝藏),这是与政客打交道的无价特质。阿斯莫德斯在地狱里是有名的,他在地狱的重要事务上得到了充分的了解,但是大多数的恶魔都把他看成是地狱上层的一个小职员。然而,他为了更好地帮助人类政治家而发展的外交和谈判技巧在地狱里非常有用,因为那里的局势混乱、不稳定。越来越多的情况是,阿斯莫德斯发现自己调停争端,并在重要的政策问题上帮助魔鬼达成共识。恶魔们开始尊重他的判断,并让他组织一些更重要的项目。
有了这种明显的支持,阿斯莫德斯决定,他的管理技能正是他所需要的。因此,他走近一些更强大的魔鬼,并建议他做一个比魔王更好的统治者。对他在上层的计划的支持起初是冷淡的,所以他做了一些一次性的支持,或者承诺做一些个别恶魔特别想做的事情,从而增加了这个提议。过了一段时间,许多恶魔都和他站在一起,但有相当多的人仍然认为魔王的力量是维持地狱秩序的必要条件。
阿斯莫德斯找到了一个解决方案:他承诺让Beelzebub在等级制度的顶层,仅次于他自己。魔鬼们同意支持他,只要他们不需要诉诸暴力,只要有必要,他们就会拒绝服从Beelzebub的命令,以示团结。甚至阿斯特罗斯也同意阿斯莫德斯可能是一个更有能力的统治者。
With the support of the devils assured, Asmodeus revealed his plan to the lord. Asmodeus demanded that Beelzebub voluntarily reduce his personal strength in order to prevent any possible future challenges to his authority, and that he change his name from Beelzebub, meaning "Prince of Devils,” to Baal- zebul, meaning “Lord of the Flies” (i.e. little devils). The reason for that was so that the old rituals of power invoking the old name would not work. Beelzebub was enraged with that, and almost attacked Asmodeus, until Asmodeus told Beelzebub to see which side the other arch-devils, such as Astaroth, were on. Beelzebub hesitated, and then reconsidered his attack. He summoned Astaroth. Upon his arrival, Astaroth greeted them with, “Hello, Baalzebul. Hello, Lord Asmodeus.” And with that, Beelzebub knew that he had been overthrown.
Thus it was that Asmodeus became lord of hell. Shortly thereafter, the “war to end all wars” was fought, and then came Mussolini and Hitler, the death camps and purges, the A-bomb and other atrocities in a war that claimed more than 15 million soldiers in battle and countless other lives. One could say that Asmodeus has known some success.
Through his politicking and playing one devil off against another, Asmodeus manages to keep a fairly tight rein on the activities of the devils. Baalzebul still secretly schemes to retake his former position, and there are a few other devils now who think that they could handle the leadership of hell, but none have yet dared to openly oppose the rule of Asmodeus.
Asmodeus has reorganized hell to suit his purposes. Satan had originally divided hell into nine distinct planes, in order to keep track of which damned soul went where. Asmodeus has dispensed with the old structuring and doled out the planes as sort of fiefdoms under his suzerainty. He kept the ninth plane as his personal demesne and granted the sixth and seventh to Baalzebul, out of respect for his previous service, making him the only devil to rule two entire planes personally. Dispater and Geryon were also granted entire planes because they were the first to support Asmodeus, and they have since been his most loyal followers. The other planes are divided among the other six dozen or so arch-devils. Astaroth was offered a plane, but he declined the responsibility.
Asmodeus has used his position to increase his personal strength to the point that he is now the most powerful devil to be found on the nine planes of hell. This is unheard of, but it was barely possible by the laws of the multiverse because the departure of Satan and Belial from hell and the reduction in strength that Baalzebul was forced to suffer left a slight imbalance in the multiverse which Asmodeus used to increase his own strength. And so, all the planes of hell are now securely under the dominion of Lord Asmodeus.
在魔鬼的支持下,阿斯莫德斯向上帝透露了他的计划。Asmodeus要求Beelzebub自愿减少他的个人力量,以防止将来对他的权威有任何可能的挑战,并且他将他的名字从Beelzebub,也就是“恶魔之王”的意思转变为Baal - zebul,意思是“苍蝇王”(即小恶魔)。这样做的原因是旧的权力仪式不会起作用。魔王被激怒了,几乎要攻击阿斯莫德斯,直到阿斯莫德斯告诉别西卜,看看其他的大恶魔,比如阿斯达特,在哪里。Beelzebub犹豫了一下,然后重新考虑了他的攻击。他召唤了Astaroth。在他到来的时候,阿斯塔罗斯向他们打招呼:“你好,Baalzebul。”你好,主魔王”。于是,别西卜知道他被打倒了。
因此,阿斯莫德斯成了地狱之王。此后不久,“结束所有战争的战争”发生了,然后是墨索里尼和希特勒,死亡集中营和清洗,原子弹和其他战争中的暴行,在战争中有1500多万士兵和无数其他生命。人们可以说阿斯莫德斯已经取得了一些成功。
阿斯莫德斯通过他的政治活动和与另一个魔鬼的斗争,对魔鬼的活动进行了相当严格的控制。Baalzebul仍然秘密计划夺回他以前的位置,现在也有一些其他的恶魔认为他们可以掌控地狱的领导权,但是没有人敢公开反对阿斯莫德斯的统治。
阿斯莫德斯重新组织了地狱以适应他的目的。撒旦最初将地狱分为9个不同的层次,以便追踪哪个该死的灵魂去了哪里。阿斯莫德斯抛弃了旧的结构,在他的领主的统治下,把飞机分发给他。他把第九架飞机作为自己的私人领地,并把第六架和第七架给了Baalzebul,这是出于对他之前服役的尊重,这使他成为唯一一个亲自统治两架飞机的人。狄斯雷和吉里昂也被授予了整架飞机,因为他们是第一个支持阿斯莫德斯的人,他们后来成为了他最忠实的追随者。其他六架飞机被其他六打左右的大恶魔瓜分。Astaroth得到了一架飞机,但他拒绝承担责任。
阿斯莫德斯利用自己的地位增加了自己的力量,他现在是地狱九层飞机上最强大的恶魔。这是闻所未闻的,但由于撒旦和彼列尔的离开地狱,以及巴尔西卜被迫承受的力量的减少,在多元宇宙中,阿斯莫德斯使用的多元宇宙中出现了轻微的不平衡。因此,地狱的所有飞机现在都安全地在阿斯莫德斯勋爵的统治之下。

The Politics of Hell:
Original layout, August 1979; issue # 28

More Masters of Deviltry   Satan
FREQUENCY   Very rare
NO. APPEARING   1
ARMOR CLASS   -8
MOVE   Whatever desired
HIT DICE   333 hit points
% IN LAIR   5%
TREASURE TYPE   H(*2), l(*2), U(*2)
NO. ATTACKS   1
DAMAGE/ATTACK   10-100
SPECIAL ATTACKS   +3 or better weapon and purity of heart required to hit
MAGIC RESISTANCE   95%
INTELLIGENCE   Godlike
ALIGNMENT   Lawful evil
SIZE   Variable
PSIONIC ABILITY   Special
Attack/Defense Modes   Special
Satan ("The Prince of Darkness,” “The Adversary,” Lucifer, “The Prince of Light’’): First among devils, Satan is a being feared by all. He can appear in any form he wishes, but the form he prefers is that of a normal man, having features which are most likely to engender trust and respect from the person he is dealing with. In places where he is master (which are rare these days, although becoming more common), he will appear in roughly humanoid form, about 7' tall, with horns, tail and pitch- fork and having a deep red skin color, almost maroon, with a majestic countenance. He can move as fast as he wants to, and he can accurately teleport, cross dimensions or even travel through time if need be. In order to strike Satan with a weapon, the attacker would need a +3 weapon to hit him, and he would also have to have a clear conscience and an absolute determination to pursue one’s objective, which of course must be of the purest motives. Anyone who dares to attack Satan psionically will automatically fall into his control forever (a Wish can recover an individual, but nothing less will do). Of course, Satan cannot be affected by a psionic attack, but he will not use normal psionic attack modes. Satan may use any spell or psionic discipline as often as he likes. He cast spells as if he was a 30th-level character, except for druidic spells, which he casts at 14th level of ability. He has an effective psionic ability of 500, although he does not actually use any points when employing psionic powers.
Satan also has the ability to alter fate, in order to cause a number of unfortunate events to happen to an individual, such as the death of friends and family and the ruin of business, career, property, social status, reputation and health, to start with. Fortunately, however, for the victim, if he remains resolute in the face of this suffering, the forces of good will eventually relieve his problems in order to maintain the balance of the multiverse, although the victim may not receive any compensation for the trouble he has gone through.
Satan's main ability is the power of temptation. He can grant anyone a wish that will give that person anything he desires. All he has to do is sign a little contract, using his own blood in lieu of ink. These wishes are much more powerful than ordinary wishes. Satan can also grant normal wishes (as a Wish spell) without the blood contract, but he rarely does so except to give some kind of assistance to those already doomed, or perhaps as a reward for faithful service. For anything important, he usually insists on a contract.
After seven years a person who has sold his soul to Satan for one of these wishes will surrender his soul to the devil (wishes notwithstanding). If the individual has wished for immortality, then the time of collection is whenever the individual decides that he has had enough of life, and voluntarily goes to hell (most such people do in the end), or else until the person dies by violence. (Immortality does not protect a person from being killed either by accident or by combat, although Satan will sometimes give a person some protection against this, such as magic armor or a wish or two, or something along those lines, because Satan prefers people to come to hell of their own free will.)
As for those who appear to be able to put with immortality, Satan has been known to give out a few unexpected surprises, which of course is not covered in the contract, in order to make the decision to go to hell easier by making life a little less pleasant (i.e., intolerable). If a person has not wished for immortality, then he may have more wishes besides the first one. Each one costs a year of the condemned one’s remaining time.
撒旦(“黑暗之王”,“敌人”,路西法,“光明之王”):首先在魔鬼中,撒旦是所有人都害怕的。他可以以任何他想要的形式出现,但他喜欢的形式是一个普通人,拥有最有可能产生信任和尊重的人的特征。在他精通的地方(这在如今很少见,尽管变得更加普遍),他将以人形形式出现,大约7英尺高,有犄角、尾巴和音叉,有深红色的肤色,几乎是栗色,有着庄严的面容。他可以随心所欲地移动,他可以准确地传送、跨维度,甚至在需要的时候穿越时间。为了用武器攻击撒旦,攻击者需要一个+ 3武器来打击他,他也必须有一个明确的良心和绝对的决心去追求一个人的目标,当然这必须是最纯粹的动机。任何胆敢攻击撒旦的人都会自动落入他的控制之中(一个愿望可以恢复一个人,但不会有更少的事情发生)。当然,撒旦不会被灵能攻击所影响,但他不会使用正常的心灵攻击模式。撒旦可以随心所欲地使用任何咒语或魔法。他施展法术,就好像他是一个30级的人物,除了德鲁伊的法术,他在14级的能力上施法。他有500个有效的灵能能力,但在使用灵能异能时,他并没有使用任何点。
撒旦也有改变命运的能力,为了使一些不幸的事件发生在个人身上,比如朋友和家庭的死亡,以及商业、事业、财产、社会地位、名誉和健康的毁灭。然而,幸运的是,对于受害者来说,如果他在面对这种痛苦时依然坚定,那么正义的力量最终将会减轻他的问题,以维持多元宇宙的平衡,尽管受害者可能不会得到他所经历的麻烦的任何补偿。
撒旦的主要能力是诱惑的力量。他可以给任何人一个愿望,只要他愿意,就可以给他任何东西。他所要做的就是签个小合同,用自己的血代替墨水。这些愿望比普通的愿望更强大。撒旦也可以在没有血液契约的情况下给予正常的愿望(作为一个愿望),但他很少这样做,只是给那些已经注定失败的人提供某种帮助,或者是对忠诚服务的回报。对于任何重要的事情,他通常都坚持合同。
七年后,一个将灵魂出卖给撒旦的人,会把灵魂交给魔鬼(尽管如此)。如果个人想要永生,那么收集的时间就是个人决定他已经受够了生命,自愿去地狱(大多数这样的人最后会这样做),或者直到那个人死于暴力。(永生并不能保护一个人不被意外或战斗杀死,尽管撒但有时会给一个人一些保护,比如魔法盔甲或一两种愿望,或类似的东西,因为撒旦更喜欢人们自由意志的地狱。)
至于那些似乎能够长生不老的人,我们知道撒旦给了我们一些意想不到的惊喜,当然这并没有在合同中提及,为了让生活变得不那么愉快(也就是说,让生活变得不那么愉快)。无法忍受的)。如果一个人不希望永生,那么除了第一个人,他可能还有更多的愿望。每一项都要花费一年的时间。
For game purposes, it is best to have the contract actually written out, with identical copies for a character and the DM (which any involved player should study carefully before signing), because Satan is extremely literal, and he takes sadistic pleasure in twisting the intent of a contract by fulfilling its letter. Normally, a lawyer cannot be consulted on such a contract, and those who will give legal advice on such matters charge an exorbitant fee. The contract will typically be simply worded,stating who gives and gets what. Once an individual accepts a wish from Satan, there is little chance of getting out of the contract, but it is possible. It is impossible to remove the compulsion to surrender one's soul to Satan unless the contract was signed while the individual was not in control of himself, in which case the contract is void and the wish is revoked. Satan will retaliate against the person responsible for this. However, as long as a person is satisfied with the contract, or at least as long as the person does not want to get out of the contract, there is no power in the universe —not a wish, not even God Himself (well, maybe He can, but He never has) — that can terminate the contract. On the other hand, if the condemned person decides that he wants to get out of the contract, there are steps he can take. He still cannot remove the compulsion to relinquish his soul, but he can enlist the assistance of some ultra-powerful being who will do battle with Satan on his behalf.
Unfortunately, once the person decides that he wants to terminate the contract, the time he has remaining in years is reduced to that many hours before Satan comes to collect, so one must act quickly after changing his mind. Also, any other devil will attempt to detain the condemned person, or failing that, to kill him. The devils cooperate with Satan in this one area because the reputation of all devildom is at stake. Naturally, a person cannot take any positive action to get out of a contract without first deciding to do so. Any cleric of at least Patriarch level can invoke the name of his deity to save the person’s soul. However, they usually require some token of one's devotion to the cause of good, such as the performance of some appropriate quest, as the price of redemption. In any event, an Atonement spell must be cast on the person, and a Quest usually is, too (hence the requirement of an eighth-level cleric). The normal penalty for failure to complete the Quest is the immediate return of the person’s soul to Satan.
Satan’s allies include those covens of witches who worship him, most others who have sold their souls to him, and Belial. Sometimes Satan will ask one of the humans under his influence to perform some task for him. This is entirely voluntary (well, almost; it’s not a good idea to cross Satan), and he will reward the person appropriately upon completion. His enemies include all those devils who acknowledge Asmodeus as lord of hell (i.e., all the other devils except Belial), all the demons, all the angels, all the gods and other powers of good, chaos, neutrality, or any combination thereof, and all the gods and other powers of lawful evil and neutral lawful or neutral evil who are allied with or support Asmodeus or any other enemy of Satan. (And you thought your character had problems!)
出于游戏的目的,最好是把合同写出来,以一个字符和DM的相同副本(任何涉及的玩家在签名前都要仔细研究),因为撒旦是非常字面的,而且他通过完成它的字母来扭曲合同的意图,这是一种施虐的乐趣。通常情况下,律师不能就这样的合同进行咨询,而那些就这些问题提供法律咨询的人收取的费用过高。合同通常是简单的措辞,说明谁给谁,得到什么。一旦一个人接受了撒旦的一个愿望,就几乎没有机会离开合同,但这是可能的。除非合同是在个人无法控制的情况下签订的,在这种情况下合同是无效的,并且愿望被撤销,因此不可能解除对撒旦的强制要求。撒旦会报复对此事负责的人。然而,只要一个人满意的合同,或者至少,只要人不希望合同,没有力量在宇宙中不是一个愿望,甚至连神(好吧,也许他可以,但他从来没有),可以解除合同。另一方面,如果被定罪的人决定要离开合同,他可以采取一些措施。他仍然不能解除他放弃灵魂的冲动,但他可以寻求一些超级强大的人的帮助,他将代表他与撒旦战斗。
不幸的是,一旦这个人决定要终止合同,他在这几年里的时间就会减少到在撒旦出现之前的那几个小时,所以他改变主意后必须马上行动。而且,任何其他的魔鬼都会试图去拘留那个被判有罪的人,否则就会杀死他。魔鬼在这一领域与撒旦合作,因为所有邪恶的名声都岌岌可危。自然地,一个人如果不事先决定,就不能采取任何积极的行动来摆脱合同。任何一位至少主教级别的神职人员都可以召唤他的神来拯救这个人的灵魂。然而,他们通常需要一些人对善的原因表示忠诚,比如一些适当的追求,作为救赎的代价。在任何情况下,施法必须施放于人身上,而任务通常也是如此(因此要求8级牧师)。未能完成任务的正常惩罚是立即将人的灵魂归还撒旦。
撒旦的盟友包括那些崇拜他的女巫的盟约,大多数把他们的灵魂出卖给他的人,和彼列尔。有时撒旦会问一个受他影响的人,为他执行一些任务。这完全是自愿的(嗯,几乎;越过撒旦不是一个好主意),他将在完成后适当地奖赏这个人。他的敌人包括所有那些承认阿斯莫德斯为地狱之王的魔鬼。所有其他恶魔恶魔除外),所有的恶魔,所有的天使,神和其他大国的好,混乱,中立,或任何组合,所有的神和其他合法的邪恶和中立的合法权力或者中立邪恶魔王”联合或支持或任何其他的敌人撒旦。(你认为你的角色有问题!)

Belial   Astaroth
Very rare   Very rare
1   1
-4   -6
12" by himself,   18“ by himself,
24"/48" in chariot   9"124" on dragon
122 hit points   155 hit points
1%   95%
U, W   unlimited
1 bite   1 (plus snake)
3-18 plus poison   1-8 (see snake entry in Monster Manual)
+2 or better   +3 or better
weapon to hit   weapon to hit
80°/o   90%
Genius   Supra-genius
Lawful evil   Lawful evil
L (11')   L(8')
222   Special
All   Special
Belial (pronouncd BEE-lee-ul; the name means "Worthlessness"): At one time, Belial was the devil in charge of politicians, the supreme commander of the armies of hell and the personal lieutenant of Satan. He now spends most of his time on the run throughout the multiverse. In the Lesser Key of Solomon, a medieval grimoire which lists and describes most of the archdevils, Belial is described as a beautiful angelic being riding a chariot of fire, and his voice is pleasant to listen to. Belial’s Chariot of Fire has three times the hit points and capacity of a Chariot of Sustarre, but otherwise it is equivalent in all respects. If it is destroyed, he can replace it the next day. He has the power of beguiling, with -2 on the defender’s saving throw. Those who wish to summon Belial must sacrifice something of great value to the summoner, because he wishes to avoid being summoned by a potential enemy, of whom he has many.
Once per turn or melee round, Belial may use any one of the following powers at will: pyrotechnics, produce flame, wall of fire, light, read languages, read magic, detect invisible, locate object, invisibility, beguiling (as noted above), geas, restoration, raise dead, (fulfull another's) wish. Once per day he can find a familiar of the summoner’s choice automatically, and use a symbol of fear and a symbol of stunning.
His skill in dealing with politicians is almost equal to that of Asmodeus, although Asmodeus will attempt to punish anyone who he finds out has been consorting with Belial. As the former commander of the armies of hell, Belial still commands respect from the troops (somewhat like Napoleon). They will notdirect- ly act to harm him, and they will give him some assistance if they can do so without being caught by the other arch-devils. In the presence of both Asmodeus and Belial, the armies of hell will make an attempt to capture Belial, because they do not want the anger of the lord of hell upon them.
Belial's other allies are Satan and the former lord’s followers. His enemies are the same as those of Satan, except for the armies of Hell as stated. However, the other devils have more enmity for Belial than for Satan, because Belial did a lot of Satan’s dirty work when the two of them were in charge, and Belial seemed to enjoy harassing the devils.
Astaroth: This arch-devil is the treasurer of hell. He used to be third in the hierarchy behind Beelzebub and Adramelech, but now he acts rather independently of the current regime. Nominally he is still third, behind Asmodeus and Baalzebul, although neither of them would try to pull rank on Astaroth except in a dire emergency. Likewise, he never orders other devils around, but sometimes he will exchange favors if he wants something done. He appears as an awesome man-like being who stands 8 feet tall. He looks somewhat overweight and is richly dressed, reeking with filthy lucre.
He also reeks with a burning stench which will cause 1-6 points of fire damage to all creatures within 30’, although a ring of fire resistance or its equivalent will protect a being against this. Still, one must make a saving throw vs. poison if within 10’ or lose consciousness from the smell for 2-12 turns unless one can get a neutralize poison within one turn. (Losing consciousness in the presence of an arch-devil is not a very bright thing to do, and should be avoided.)
Astaroth usually rides a huge ancient red dragon, and he carries a large pit viper (giant poisonous snake) wrapped around his right arm. He can also strike with his left arm for 1-8 points of damage because, like most devils, he is left-handed.
Astaroth may once per turn or melee round use one of the following powers at will: pyrotechnics, produce flame, wall of fire, ice storm, wall of ice, continual light, read languages, read magic, detect invisible, locate object, invisibility, dispel magic, shape change, beguile, rulership, charm monster, geas, restoration, raise dead, (fulfill another’s) wish. Once per day he may do each of the following: legend lore, contact lower plane and precognition (90% accurate). His gaze causes confusion to his enemies (as spell).
Astaroth can create treasure, in the form of coins, gems or jewelry, at will. The DM will determine how much he has lying around, and how much can be carried away. He can teach any of the liberal arts very quickly. Astaroth is immune to psionic attack, and he cannot make a psionic attack.
Astaroth will willingly talk about the fall of the devils, but he does not speak of his own part in that event. In fact, he acts as though he was not subject to the fall, as if he were still working selflessly for the will of God and the good of mankind. Nevertheless, he is a devil of great power, and most devils give him great respect and a wide berth. One must take what he says to the contrary with a grain of salt.
Curiously enough, a number of sources state that Astaroth,in addition to his duties as the devil responsible for financial matters, is also the devil in charge of supervising the activities of devils in the United States. This would seem to indicate that the devils find the United States of great importance and stature, for no other nation has a devil of such rank overseeing it. He may also be partially responsible for all the commercial hype that Americans are subjected to. Then again, it could just be that mere men create such colossal inanity. No one knows for sure (except maybe God, in which case He will hold those culpable to account for their actions).
彼列(pronouncd BEE-lee-ul;这个名字的意思是“无价值”):曾经,彼列尔是掌管政治家的恶魔,是地狱军队的最高统帅和撒旦的私人中尉。现在他大部分时间都花在了多元宇宙的运行上。在所罗门的小调中,一个中世纪的大魔王,列出并描述了大部分的大恶魔,他被描述成一个美丽的天使,正骑着一辆火的战车,他的声音听起来很好听。Belial的战车的火力有三倍于战车的战车,但在其他方面它是等同的。如果它被破坏了,他可以在第二天替换它。他拥有迷人的力量,在防守者的豁免上有2-2。那些想要召唤恶魔的人必须牺牲一些有价值的东西给召唤者,因为他希望避免被潜在的敌人召唤,他有很多敌人。
一旦每个回合或近战回合,Belial可以任意使用以下任何一个异能:烟火,产生火焰,火墙,光,读语言,读魔法,探测隐形,定位物体,隐身,欺骗(如上所述),盖斯,恢复,复活,(富尔满另一个)的愿望。每一天他都能自动找到一个熟悉的召唤者的选择,并使用恐惧的符号和令人震惊的符号。
他与政客打交道的技巧几乎与阿斯莫德斯不相上下,尽管阿斯莫德斯将试图惩罚任何他发现的人与彼列之间的关系。作为地狱大军的前指挥官,伯利兹仍然受到军队的尊敬(有点像拿破仑)。他们不会直接伤害他,如果他们能这样做,他们就会给他一些帮助,而不会被其他的大恶魔抓住。在阿斯莫德斯和彼拉尔的面前,地狱的军队将会试图夺取彼列尔,因为他们不想让地狱之主的愤怒临到他们。
彼列的其他盟友是撒旦和前领主的追随者。他的敌人和撒旦的敌人一样,只不过是地狱的军队。然而,其他的魔鬼对恶魔的敌意比对撒旦的敌意更大,因为当他们两个人在一起的时候,贝列尔做了很多撒旦的肮脏勾当,而伯利兹似乎喜欢骚扰魔鬼。

Last word: The Lesser Key of Solomon warns that when summoning Asmodeus, the summoner must not be wearing anything on his head, or Asmodeus will “deceive" him. That includes helms and other headgear. Forewarned is forearmed.
最后一句话:所罗门王的小钥匙发出警告,当召唤阿斯莫德斯时,召唤者不能戴上任何东西,否则阿斯莫德斯会“欺骗”他。包括头盔和其他首饰。俗话说“有备无患”。
Play for fun.